"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."

Margaret Mead

The Cureus Publishing Process

An Introduction to Publishing With Cureus

Acceptance Policy and Editing Fees

Cureus is committed to providing easy, timely and affordable article publication. We expect all submissions to adhere to our rigorous formatting and language requirements. Placing this responsibility on our author via our DIY submission process allows for many authors to publish with zero editing fees. Preliminary acceptance occurs when your article enters peer review, but comprehensive editorial review (and the assurance of publication) will not occur until the article is submitted for publication after peer review. Articles that exceed our author or reference limits or contain too many formatting and language errors identified during preliminary review will require an editing fee, however, Cureus does not charge article publication fees.

Credible Peer Review Required

Cureus publishes all credible medical science applicable to the global healthcare community. Article credibility is determined by favorable commentary from trusted peer reviewers that includes substantial critical feedback confirming the absence of fatal scientific and methodological flaws.

All authors should invite unbiased and expert reviewers who will provide critical feedback. Positive reviews lacking in substantial constructive feedback will be closely scrutinized by our editors and may be rejected. Think of it this way - your peer reviewers will be reviewed, therefore inviting credible reviewers is of paramount importance.

Two completed reviews are required in order to proceed, one of which must be from a reviewer invited by Cureus. This requirement will be waived after 21 days if two author-invited reviews have been submitted.

Unacceptable Article Topics

Cureus does not accept the following submissions:

  • COVID-19 review articles or editorials
  • Dentistry articles focused solely on the teeth or lacking a direct link to general health
  • Surveys of medical students or residents
  • Articles on medical student, resident or physician burnout
  • KAP (knowledge, attitude and practices) surveys lacking a clear scientific impact
  • Mini-reviews (Only comprehensive reviews will be considered.)
All Review Articles Require Preferred Editing

All non-channel/competition review articles submitted to Cureus will be required to purchase our Preferred Editing service in order to proceed with peer review and publication. This is due to the considerable editorial expenses associated with processing and editing these articles, which typically contain more content and references than other articles.

Academic Fraud Policy

Cureus does not tolerate plagiarism, data or figure manipulation, knowingly providing incorrect information, copyright infringement, inaccurate author attributions, attempts to inappropriately manipulate the peer review process, failures to declare conflicts of interest, fraud and libel. Cureus pledges to vigorously pursue and investigate any offending parties to ensure that their transgressions are recognized by their employer, institution and/or relevant governing body.

PubMed Central Indexing Requirements

Cureus publishing requirements exist in part to ensure that each published article is accepted for indexing in PubMed Central (PMC). All requirements listed below must be met in order for your articles to be published in Cureus and indexed in PMC. Articles published in Cureus will appear in PubMed Central approximately six weeks after publication.

Qualifying for Free Publication

As stated above, all non-channel and non-competition original article, case report, technical report and editorial submissions undergo a preliminary review to determine if the article meets all Cureus editorial requirements (as listed in this Author Guide) and qualifies for free publication. All non-channel/competition review articles require the purchase of our Preferred Editing service.

In order to remain eligible for free publication, articles cannot contain more than the following number of authors or references. Exceeding either total will disqualify the article from free publication regardless of how many errors are found during our preliminary review.

  • Original articles: 10 authors and 30 references
  • Case reports and technical reports: 5 authors and 20 references
  • Editorials: 5 authors and 5 references
Editor Check: Preliminary Editorial Review

Our preliminary review focuses on the following areas:

  • Is this article well-drafted and scientifically credible?
    • Please refer to the Accepted Article Types section below.
  • Does this article fit within the journal’s scope?
    • Please refer to the Unacceptable Article topics section above.
  • Are there errors in the following areas?
    • Reference formatting and accuracy
    • Media quality, formatting, labels and placement
    • Spelling, grammar, syntax and punctuation errors
    • Author names and affiliations
    • Text and article formatting
    • Proper use of acronyms and initialisms

Only well-drafted, relevant, credible submissions with few or no errors will be permitted to publish for free. Articles with too many errors will be required to purchase our Preferred Editing service (use our calculator to estimate potential editing fees) and articles with severe language issues will require professional language editing by a third party in order to be considered for peer review and free publication in Cureus. DIY editing services such as Grammarly will not be accepted.

Publication Process Overview

All articles must be submitted through our online system. Emailed submissions will be discarded without editorial review. If you encounter technical issues during the submission process, please email [email protected].

  1. The submitting author enters all article information, including all co-authors with corresponding affiliations, and adds the article text along with any relevant media. The author is then required to disclose any relevant conflicts of interest and adhere to any relevant ethics statements. Lastly, the author enters contact information for at least five potential reviewers. (View our comprehensive Author Instructions for a more detailed look at the submission process.)
  2. The author submits the article for Editor Check, a preliminary review by the Cureus editorial team. Based on this review, the article will be directed down one of the following paths:
    1. Approved for Peer Review

      If all Cureus editorial requirements have been met, the article will be approved for peer review with no editing fees required.

    2. Preferred Editing Purchase Required

      Review articles and submissions containing multiple formatting and/or language errors will require the purchase of our Preferred Editing service to proceed to peer review. (Channel and competition articles are exempt.)

    3. 3rd Party Editing Service Required

      If severe language issues are present, language editing from a third-party service will be required prior to resubmission.

    4. Text Duplication Revision Required

      Too much text is duplicated from cited sources and must be rewritten by the author to reduce direct duplication. Cureus Preferred Editing will be required after resubmission regardless of any additional errors found.

    5. Media Revision Required

      The following issues will require correction by the author before our editorial review can proceed: videos that don’t play, tables that are incomprehensible or submitted as figures, missing media items, visible identifying patient information, and figures that are blurry, stretched, skewed or too dark. Cureus Preferred Editing will be required after resubmission regardless of any additional errors found.

    6. Desk Rejected

      The article is outside the scope of the journal, not applicable to the global healthcare community or is otherwise ill-suited for publication (e.g. faulty study design).

    7. Blocked

      The article is in direct violation of our submission policies (e.g. plagiarism, academic fraud, attempts to circumvent peer or editorial review). Submitting authors of articles blocked for plagiarism or fraud will be permanently banned from Cureus.

  3. The article earns preliminary acceptance and is approved for peer review after the following has been confirmed:
    1. All Cureus editorial requirements have been addressed.
    2. Preferred Editing service has been purchased if required.
    3. Professional third-party language editing services have been utilized if required.

    Invitations are emailed to the preselected peer reviewers when the article is approved for peer review. The editor also invites additional reviewers with relevant domain knowledge at this time. During peer review, the author can invite new reviewers and send reminders to previously invited reviewers via the author dashboard.

  4. The article is unlocked for editing when two reviews have been submitted, one of which must be from a Cureus-invited reviewer.* The author may now choose to:
    1. Wait for additional reviews (all article versions are saved and available to the author and reviewers) before revising and submitting for publication approval (Editor Approval) while also providing an explanation of the revisions.
    2. Make revisions and request that the article is re-reviewed by one or more reviewers who completed a review during the first round of review.
    3. Make revisions and submit for publication approval while also providing an explanation of the revisions.

    *This requirement will be waived for all articles if no Cureus-invited review has been submitted within 21 days. Articles with a Cureus Laureate author are exempt from the Cureus-invited reviewer requirement.

    Authors have the option to end the peer review period for all reviewers once their article has satisfied our peer review requirements. If chosen, this option will expire all outstanding and in-progress reviews, with the exception of any reviews that were started within the prior 48 hours. These reviewers are given a maximum of 24 hours to submit their review, however, the review period may end sooner if the author revises and submits for publication approval.

    Authors who are waiting on a Cureus-invited review (and have received at least two reviews from author-invited reviewers) can also choose to end the review period for the remaining author-invited reviewers. Any reviewers who started their review in the prior 48 hours will be notified that they have a maximum of 24 hours remaining to submit their review.

  5. Once the article has been submitted for Editor Approval, an associate editor will conduct a final editorial review to confirm the article’s suitability for publication. This includes ensuring that all reviewer comments have been acknowledged and addressed appropriately.

    If the revised manuscript does not adequately reflect reviewer feedback, the associate editor is likely to defer publication of the article. The author is then notified that further revision is required. If a completed peer review is determined to be illegitimate, the review will be rejected and the article returned to peer review (if the article no longer satisfies Cureus review requirements after the rejection).

  6. After the associate editor has completed their review, the article will enter the copy editing queue. Non-Preferred Editing articles may be deferred back to the submitting author for formatting and language revisions prior to the start of copy editing. The copy editor may also choose to email the submitting author directly with questions. The article is approved for publication when copy editing has been completed and the author is notified that they can now sign in and publish the article from their dashboard.

The Cureus publishing process may vary in length due to article complexity, length and the availability of reviewers with sufficient domain knowledge. Cureus strives to publish articles within 4 weeks of submission. In order to accelerate the review process, authors are encouraged to invite multiple reviewers with relevant domain knowledge.

Accepted Article Types

Cureus accepts and publishes five different article types: original, review, case report, technical report and editorial. To be considered for publication, each article type must include the sections listed below. Only original articles may include abstract subheadings. Cureus does not accept or publish article commentaries or letters to the editor.

Author Limits

In order to remain eligible for free publication, case reports, technical reports and editorials must not exceed a total of 5 authors. Original article submissions cannot exceed a total of 10 authors and remain eligible for free publication.

  • Original Article

    Original articles report original research and are classified as primary literature. This is the most common type of journal manuscript used to publish full reports of data from research. Original articles may also be referred to as research article, research, or just article, as this format is suitable for many different fields and different types of studies. Case series with six or more cases are considered retrospective studies and must be submitted as an original article with a far more extensive study than a typical case report. Cureus is very selective regarding submissions that utilize survey-based methodologies concerning general knowledge, awareness and attitudes without a clear scientific impact.

    Original articles must include the following sections: abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions, references. Original articles containing more than 30 references are not eligible for free publication.

  • Review Article (Preferred Editing Purchase Required)

    Review articles give an overview of existing literature in a field, often identifying specific problems or issues and providing a balanced analysis derived from available published work on the topic. Review articles provide a comprehensive summary of research on the selected topic, and a perspective on the state of the field and where it is heading. Review articles can be one of two types, broadly speaking: literature reviews or systematic reviews. Meta-analysis articles should also be submitted as review articles. Cureus does not accept “brief” or “mini” reviews. Bibliometric analysis articles are only accepted when correctly submitted to a Cureus channel.

    Review articles must include the following sections: abstract, introduction and background, review, conclusions, references.

  • Case Report

    Case reports present the details of real patient cases from medical or clinical practice. Cases may contribute significantly to the existing knowledge on the field or showcase less novel results. The report is expected to discuss the signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of a disease. A goal of case reports is to make other researchers aware of the possibility that a specific phenomenon might occur. Case series of five cases or fewer must be submitted as a case report. Any MRI/CT/X-ray/scan image mentioned in the case report must be included in the article, unless it shows nothing of interest. Articles featuring both a case presentation and literature review must be submitted as a case report.

    Case reports must include the following sections: abstract, introduction, case presentation, discussion, conclusions, references. Case reports containing more than 20 references are not eligible for free publication.

  • Technical Report

    Technical reports are formal reports designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format. They are typically divided into sections which allow different readers to access different levels of information. A technical report (also scientific report) is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. It might also include recommendations and conclusions of the research.

    Technical reports must include the following sections: abstract, introduction, technical report, discussion, conclusions, references. Technical reports containing more than 20 references are not eligible for free publication.

  • Editorial

    Editorials are opinion or perspective pieces on a relevant, timely topic. Before submitting an editorial, the author must email [email protected] to convey the rationale and importance of the proposed article. Editorials will only be approved if submitted by senior clinicians or researchers with an established Cureus publishing history.

    Editorials must include the following sections: abstract, editorial, references. Editorials containing more than 5 references are not eligible for free publication.

Author Instructions

Author Roles

Submitting Author

The submitting author assumes all responsibility throughout the submission, peer review and publication process. The submitting author is the only account with edit access and if the article requires our Preferred Editing service, payment must be made via the submitting author’s account. If you are submitting on behalf of an author you must sign in with the author’s account before continuing. All Cureus email notifications sent during the submission process will be sent to the submitting author. For these reasons, we strongly recommend that authors submit their own work.

Corresponding Author

The submitting author may designate a co-author to serve as corresponding author after the article is published. Prior to publication, the corresponding author does not have edit access or the option to purchase Preferred Editing. These actions must be performed by the submitting author.

Shared First Authorship

Cureus does not support co-first authors. If you wish to recognize two first authors, please do so by adding a statement to the Acknowledgments section.

Submitting an Article

Multiple Concurrent Submissions Limited to Summa & Laureate Authors

Only Cureus Summa or Laureate tier authors may submit more than one article at a time. This includes previously deferred articles. Previously deferred articles on your author dashboard must be resubmitted and published (or deleted) before a new submission can be made.

All Submissions Must Include a Senior Author

Medical students who wish to submit an article to Cureus must include a senior author who has completed their training, such as a chief resident, faculty member or private practice physician.

Step-by-Step Submission Instructions

Cureus operates a merit-based publication system, in which we publish all articles that satisfy Cureus editorial requirements and contain no fraudulent or dangerous science. It is the submitting author’s responsibility to meet us halfway by submitting an article draft that meets all listed editorial requirements. Authors must complete the following steps in order to submit an article draft for peer review. Authors may save and exit the submission process at any time by clicking “Exit” in the top right corner of the page.

  1. Getting Started

    Are you submitting on behalf of a channel? Are you entering a competition? Designate your article as a channel or competition article here, then choose the article type (original, review, case report, technical report, editorial). This information cannot be changed after moving on to the Title, etc. section.

  2. Title, etc.

    Enter the article title in Title Case utilizing APA style. Do not enter the title in all caps or include a period at the end. Beginning with this step, you may preview your draft at any time to see how the published version will be displayed.


    Enter your article abstract. Abstracts are limited to 3,500 characters. Subheaders are permitted in original article abstracts only.


    Select 1-3 article categories.


    Add 5-10 keywords to your article. Please keep your keywords short (a maximum of 3-4 words each) and as specific as possible. Don’t add periods to initialisms or acronyms.

  3. Authors

    Add your co-authors. Authors cannot be added after submission so make sure to include all authors prior to submitting! The submitting author is listed as the first author by default; this can be changed by dragging and dropping the authors into the desired order.

    You are responsible for editing all author names and affiliations. While your co-authors can edit their name and affiliation in their Cureus profiles, their changes will not be reflected in articles submitted to or published in Cureus. Author names and affiliations for all authors listed in an article must be edited by the submitting author. It is the submitting author’s responsibility to enter or revise all co-author name and affiliation information and ensure accuracy and consistent formatting.

    Affiliations: All authors must have an accurate and consistently formatted affiliation name and location. Medical students should list the relevant article category as their department (e.g. neurosurgery, family medicine, etc.). Titles such as Professor, Assistant Professor, Medical Student, Resident, Department Chair, etc. are not permitted in the author affiliation and should not be included in the Department field. If two or more authors are from the same hospital or academic institution, the hospital or institution name entered in this field must be identical for those authors. If these authors are also from the same department, then the information in the department field must also be identical. This includes spelling, capitalization, spacing, etc.

    Articles submitted with inconsistent affiliation formatting will be required to purchase our Preferred Editing service in order to proceed so it is very important that you edit all author affiliations to be uniform!

  4. Disclosures

    Please provide all relevant information pertaining to any human or animal subjects and disclose any relevant conflicts of interest (COI). You may also add acknowledgements at this time.

    In the event that human or animal subjects are included in the article, please provide the relevant IRB names and approval numbers and confirm that informed consent was obtained or waived.

    The submitting author is responsible for including all co-author COI and disclosure information. Are you unsure about potential conflicts of interest among your co-authors? You can send an email request for this information directly to your co-authors from inside the submission process.

    Conflicts of interest may involve 3rd party payment or service for any aspect of the submitted work, relevant financial activities outside the submitted work, patents that could be considered broadly relevant to the work and any relationships not covered previously.

    Based on the provided information and disclosures, Cureus will automatically generate an Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures to be included alongside the published article. Please see the Publication Ethics and Conflicts of Interest sections of the Author Guide to view a detailed breakdown of required statements and disclosures.

  5. Article

    Enter the main article content here. Article sections will vary depending on the article type selected earlier in the submission process. Do not compose your article directly in the text field. Instead, first write your article in the word processor of your choice and then copy and paste your article text into the appropriate section. Please do not include section names (e.g. Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results, etc.) as these are added automatically.

    Previously presented as abstract or poster: If you previously presented your article as an abstract or poster, this must be mentioned in the introduction section. Please include the meeting or conference title and date. For example, “This article was previously presented as a meeting abstract at the 2020 AANS Annual Scientific Meeting on April 27, 2020.”

    Previously posted to preprint server: If you previously posted your article to a preprint server, this must be mentioned in the body of the article. For example, “This article was previously posted to the medRxiv preprint server on April 27, 2020.” Article submissions that are currently available on a preprint server will be accepted if they are not pending full publication elsewhere.

    Text formatting: All articles must adhere to Cureus formatting styles - no paragraph indentations or bulleted lists, only one line return after each paragraph and only one space between sentences. Please remove any text styling before copying and pasting your text into the appropriate field.

    Scientific nomenclature: Please adhere to CDC guidelines for writing scientific nomenclature such as bacteria and genes. (Italics cannot be used in article titles.)

    Conclusions: The conclusions section should be 1-2 paragraphs. Articles with 1-2 sentence conclusions will not be accepted. Additionally, the conclusions should be concise and exclude any data or other information that would require citations.

    Numbers: Numbers 1-9 should be spelled out except in cases of measurement. (e.g. 7 mm) Numbers higher than nine should be entered numerically. (10, 100, 463, 1,932, etc.)

    Citations: References should be cited using square brackets. Square brackets should not be used anywhere in your article except for the in-text citations. Reference citations may be placed mid-sentence or at the end of a sentence (but before the period). If multiple references are cited in one place, please list them as follows: [1-4], [1,3], [5,9-12], etc. Footnotes are not permitted. Citations are not permitted in figure, table, video or 3D model titles. They should instead be included in the media legend or table cells.

    Media: Media is not permitted in the abstract, introduction or conclusions section. The only exception is the introduction section of a review article. Each article is permitted up to 25 media items.

    To add media to your article, first place your cursor in the desired location in the article section text field and click one of the Insert Figure, Table, Video or 3D model buttons on the article section toolbar. You will then be prompted to upload the figure, paste or create the table or paste the video or 3D model URL and add a title and optional legend.

    Please visit our Media Guide for detailed instructions on adding each media type as well as examples of unacceptable media.

    Subheaders: Cureus allows for three levels of subheaders.

    Major subheaders should be formatted using the subheader style found in the “Styles” dropdown menu. Major subheaders should be in sentence case, i.e. the first word should be capitalized and all other words should be in lowercase, except proper nouns and acronyms/initialisms (such as GBM, SRS, etc.).

    Minor subheaders should be in title case and italicized. Both major and minor subheaders should be followed by a line return before the next paragraph begins. If the article contains a third level of subheader, it should be in sentence case and lead off the paragraph, followed by a colon. E.g. Patient zero: This patient exhibited signs of…

    Formulas: Cureus supports LaTex. Formulas may be built using LaTeX during your submission or you may copy/paste and convert your pre-prepared formulas. Please keep this in mind when preparing your manuscript.

    Appendices (optional): Add supplemental information here.

  6. References

    Creating references is simple with our automated converting tool. Please format all references in a text document according to the Cureus style before copying and pasting the list and selecting “Convert references.”

    Once all references have been converted, please preview (and edit as necessary) each reference to ensure that it has been converted correctly. We’ll do our best to detect each reference type based on its formatting, but the conversion tool is not perfect and the results will require your review. When editing your converted references, please do not add punctuation at the end - punctuation will be added automatically. If you prefer, you can also enter your references one-by-one.

    Please view the References section for more detailed instructions.

  7. Reviewers

    Author-invited reviewers: The submitting author is required to invite a minimum of five individuals with requisite domain knowledge to review the article. Prior to the forwarding of a review invitation, each author-submitted reviewer is carefully vetted by Cureus editorial staff with a specific focus on relevant scientific expertise.

    Cureus-invited reviewers: In addition to author-invited reviewers, Cureus editorial staff will handpick selected members of the Cureus editorial board and/or allied specialists from the larger scientific community to review articles within their area of specialty. Two completed reviews are required to satisfy peer review and one of these reviews must be from a Cureus-invited reviewer. (Articles with a Cureus Laureate author are exempt from the Cureus-invited reviewer requirement.) Cureus editors will reject reviews that do not include constructive feedback.

  8. Summary

    The summary contains a section-by-section outline of your article. You can review each aspect of your article and jump directly to a specific section of the submission process if you’d like to make changes.

    If any issues with the reference citations are detected, you will receive a notification and list of the citation or reference-related issues (e.g. missing citations, missing references, incorrectly formatted citations). It is your responsibility to identify and address all listed in order to proceed to the next step and submit your article.

  9. Submit

    Please preview your article draft one last time and make sure that everything looks good. You cannot submit your draft without first previewing your work. When you’re satisfied, click the ‘Submit my article’ button. Peer review invitation emails will be sent out and the peer review process will begin when your article is approved during our preliminary editorial review. Please refer to The Cureus Publishing Process section for a detailed description of what happens next.

  10.  Purchasing Preferred Editing Service or Uploading Third Party Editing Service Receipt

    If, after submission, you receive an email stating that our Preferred Editing service is required, you will be prompted to enter your payment information and resubmit the article.

    If, after submission, you receive an email stating that professional third-party language editing is required, you will be prompted to enter the name of the service and upload an invoice or receipt when resubmitting the article.

Managing the Peer Review Process

You can oversee your article’s peer review from the My Documents tab of your dashboard. Monitor peer review progress with up-to-the-minute statistics, remind invited reviewers or invite new reviewers and view peer review comments as they are submitted.


Reference Limits

Articles are limited to the following number of references in order to remain eligible for free publication. Exceeding the below limits will disqualify your article from free publication regardless of how many errors are found during our preliminary review.

  • Original articles: 30 references
  • Technical reports: 20 references
  • Case reports: 20 references
  • Editorials: 5 references
DOIs Required if Available

The DOI (digital object identifier) is a string of numbers that uniquely identifies a published article. The DOI is permanently assigned to an article and provides a persistent link to current information about that article, including location. This enables readers to find the online article irrespective of any subsequent changes in the web site structure, in the management responsibility of the journal in which it was first published, or the location of the website on which the journal is hosted.

Cureus requires DOI numbers to be included in all references when available. If you have a PubMed ID, but no DOI, you can try searching for the DOI using this tool. If a DOI cannot be found, please add the article URL to the URL reference field instead.

Citing Unpublished Material

Material that has not yet been accepted for publication and does not have a DOI should be noted as “unpublished data” and should not be included in the reference list. Articles that are pending publication elsewhere may be cited, however “(IN PRESS)” must be included at the end of the article title in the reference.

All material included in the reference list must have been previously published in citable journals or books. If you wish to reference material that does not meet this specification, such as an abstract without DOI, poster, unpublished data or personal communication, please include information about this source within the text of your article. If a poster or abstract has a DOI, it should be treated as published material and cited in the reference list.

To mention an abstract (with no DOI), poster or other unpublished material in the body of your article, please use the following format: (Type of unpublished material: Author names. Title in Title Case. Meeting Title (if applicable); Date)” If needed, repeated subsequent citations for the same item should be shortened to include first author name and date as follows: “(Type of unpublished material: First author name, date).

Preprints should be included in the reference list and cited accordingly and “[PREPRINT]” should be included after the article title in the corresponding reference.

Reference Citations

References should be cited using square brackets. Reference citations may be placed mid-sentence or at the end of a sentence (but before the period). For example: This is an example sentence [1]. If multiple references are cited in one sentence, please list them as follows: [1-4], [1,3], [5,9-12], etc. Footnotes are not permitted.

Please number references in the order in which they are mentioned in the text; they should not be alphabetized. All co-authors must be cited when creating a reference unless there are more than seven authors. If more than seven authors, insert “et al.” after the first three authors. Author names should be formatted as seen in the examples below.

Reference Abbreviations

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the Index Medicus system. For more information, please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

Additional Formatting Requirements

Please adhere to the following requirements for each reference type. Submissions that do not follow these requirements will be required to purchase our Preferred Editing service. Please pay particular attention to the following:

  • References missing required information (page numbers, title, authors, etc) will always be the responsibility of the author even if Preferred Editing has been purchased.
  • Do not link to a website that no longer exists. (Defunct journals may still be referenced.)
  • When referencing a book (chapter or whole), editors (if available), publisher and publisher location must be listed.
  • When referencing a journal article, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalized. (Note: Book titles should be listed in title case, i.e. the first letter of each word is capitalized.)
  • Website references must include an access date and the name of the citation (i.e. not just the URL).
  • List only the volume number of the journal. Issue and supplement numbers should not be included. If referencing a book chapter, please include the edition and volume numbers.
  • Please list the page numbers of the cited chapter or article.
  • The DOI number should be added to the end of the reference if available. The “DOI” abbreviation should not be included.
  • All references must include a DOI or URL unless neither exist.

Prior to converting your references, please ensure they are formatted as follows:

Video within a journal

Lavezzo MM, Sakata VM, Morita C, et al.: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: review of a rare autoimmune disease targeting antigens of melanocytes. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016, 11:29. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27008848/.

Whole issue of journal

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in Statute. 2010, 124:119-1024.

Complete book

Bailey LH, Bailey EZ: Hortus Third : A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan, New York; 1976.

Book chapter or article within a book

Gogia S: Rationale, history, and basics of telehealth. Fundamentals of Telemedicine and Telehealth. Gogia S (ed): Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands; 2019. 11-34. 10.1016/C2017-0-01090-X

Book with institutional author

Seffinger MA: Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine. Philosophy, Science, Clinical Applications and Research. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, PA; 2018.

If you choose to use reference management software, Cureus recommends EndNote for easy management and formatting of citations and reference lists. You can download Cureus' preferred style here.

SEO Tips to Boost Article Visibility

It’s important to do everything you can to boost the search engine visibility of your articles. Here are two easy tips that will help drive your articles to the top of search engine results.

Optimizing Article Keywords

The majority of traffic to your published article will arrive directly from Google. Increase your article’s discoverability with these easy tips:

  1. Create a search engine friendly title. (Include 1-2 keywords related to your topic.)
  2. Optimize your abstract. (Place keywords in the first two sentences and repeat several times throughout the remainder of your abstract.)
  3. Use keywords throughout your article. (Make sure the keywords are consistent with your topic and field of study.)
Backlinking to Cureus Articles

Do you have a profile or bio page on your hospital or university’s website? Adding hyperlinks on this page that link to your Cureus articles will provide a big boost to their “importance” in the eyes of Google and other search engines. The result? Higher ranked results when your article’s topic or keyword are searched.

Promoting Your Research

You've worked hard to conduct your research and publish your results. Now you're ready to go the extra mile and promote your research to medical professionals all over the world. Cureus offers a social media promotional add-on for eligible published articles at an additional cost. To check your eligibility status, visit your author dashboard and view your published articles.

Policies and Procedures

Open Peer Review

Cureus is a formally peer-reviewed medical journal. All submitted articles must undergo a single-blind peer review process in which reviewers know the identity of the authors, but authors do not know the identify of the reviewers.

Reviewers are made anonymous through Cureus' automated system. Once a reviewer accepts the review invitation, he or she is assigned a Greek letter to be used for identification purposes by the authors (e.g. Reviewer Alpha).

Authors are required to invite a minimum of five reviewers when submitting their draft. Cureus Editors-in-Chief invite additional reviewers with relevant domain knowledge to ensure that comprehensive criticism is provided, thus ensuring the publishing process is both fruitful and efficient.

ICMJE Uniform Requirements of Authors

Cureus adheres to the ICMJE uniform requirements of authorship. All authors of an article must meet the following requirements:

"Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.
When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the article (3). These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship/contributorship defined above, and editors will ask these individuals to complete journal-specific author and conflict-of-interest disclosure forms. When submitting a article authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. The NLM indexes the group name and the names of individuals the group has identified as being directly responsible for the article; it also lists the names of collaborators if they are listed in Acknowledgments.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content."

Cureus suggests the following (or a similar) format. Please use initials to refer to each author.

AB carried out the molecular genetic studies, participated in the sequence alignment and drafted the manuscript. JY carried out the immunoassays. MT participated in the sequence alignment. ES participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. FG conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Any contributor who does not meet the criteria for authorship may be listed in the Acknowledgements section. Examples include a person who provided technical help or writing assistance or a department chair that provided general support.

The corresponding author’s role and responsibilities are to:

  1. Inform all co-authors when an article bearing their name has been submitted to Cureus. (Upon submission, each co-author will also receive an email requesting confirmation of authorship).
  2. Manage correspondence between Cureus and all co-authors, keeping the full co-author group apprised of the article progress. (Each co-author will receive automated email notifications confirming authorship, article publication, and, if necessary, article retraction.)
  3. Declare all relevant conflicts of interest on behalf of all co-authors.
  4. Ensure, to the best of his/her abilities, that the article fully adheres to all Cureus policies (including such items as publication ethics, data deposition, materials deposition, etc).
  5. Respond to all queries pertaining to the published article, while also providing relevant data and materials as requested.

Conflicts of Interest

Cureus requires all parties involved in the publication process (all authors, reviewers, Cureus EIC and post-publication SIQ™ scorers) to fully declare any potential conflicts of interest (COI).

Authors are required to declare all competing interests during the submission process. Reviewers are expected to consider any potential conflicts of interest before agreeing to review, and to declare, in detail, any relevant conflicts of interest before submitting their review. Editors-in-Chief are expected to recuse themselves from the publication process if they feel they have a conflict of interest in regards to the article.

All potential conflicts of interest should be declared. Please disclose a relationship and/or conflict of interest if faced with even the slightest amount of uncertainty as to its potential relevance. Examples of conflicts of interest include, but are not limited to: possible financial benefits if the article is published; prior working, or personal, relationships with any of the authors; patent or grant activity that could be considered broadly relevant to the work; personal material or financial gain (such as free travel, gifts, etc.) relating to the work; personal convictions (religious, political, etc.) which may have a bearing on the work, etc.

A complete list of funding sources (institutional, corporate, grants, etc.) and relevant relationships and financial activities must be detailed in the Ethics Statements and Conflict of Interest Disclosures section of the article submission process.

The following COI sections contain questions posed to the authors during the submission process. All COI sections must be addressed in order to satisfy Cureus COI requirements and are reprinted below as they appear in the article submission process. The language contained in the four sections below is based upon the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. (Click each header to view the section as it appears in the submission process.)

The Work Under Consideration for Publication

Did you or your institution at any time receive payment or services from a third party (government, commercial, private foundation, etc.) for any aspect of the submitted work (such as grants, data monitoring board, study design, manuscript preparation, statistical analysis, etc.)?

Relevant Financial Activities Outside the Work

Please indicate all financial relationships (regardless of compensation amount) associated with the submitting author and all co-authors. You should disclose interactions with any entity that could be considered broadly relevant to your work. Report all relationships that were present during the 36 months prior to publication. Remember – if there is any question, it is better to disclose a relationship than not to do so.

For grants you have received for work outside the submitted work, only disclose support from entities that could be perceived to be affected financially by the published work, such as drug companies, or foundations supported by entities that could be perceived to have a financial stake in the outcome.

Intellectual Property: Patents & Copyrights

Do you have any patents, whether planned, pending or issued, that could be considered broadly relevant to this work?

Relationships Not Covered Previously

Are there other relationships or activities that readers could perceive to have influenced, or that give the appearance of potentially influencing, what you wrote in the submitted work?

Disclosure of 3rd Party Funding

Separately from declaring any conflicts of interest, Cureus also requires that authors disclose any payments or services received from a 3rd party (government, commercial, private foundation, etc.) for any aspect of the submitted work (such as grants, data monitoring board, study design, article preparation, statistical analysis, etc.).

This information is included in a disclosure statement attached to the final published article.

Human and Animal Subjects

Where applicable, Cureus requires that authors provide information detailing the relevant ethical standards which were met when conducting research involving the study of human and/or animal participants or tissue.

Authors are required to provide such information whenever research is conducted on humans or human tissue; on animals or animal tissue; when conducting field studies; or in any instance requiring the approval of an Institutional Review Board (IRB). In cases that required IRB approval, the IRB that granted the approval should be named in the article.

This information is included in a disclosure statement attached to the final published article.

Human Subjects Research

For studies involving human subjects, appropriate approval must have been obtained from the relevant institutional review board or ethics committee. Before conducting the research, approval must have been obtained from an institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee. The author must also include this information detailing their approval as part of their Materials & Methods section (including the name of the granting organization, the approval reference numbers and, optionally, the statement, approval letter and/or application approval).

Authors must include a statement confirming that informed consent was either obtained or waived. Where possible, a copy of the consent form should be provided as supplemental information. If consent was verbal instead of written, then an explanation should be provided (in the Materials and Methods section) and verbal consent must have been approved by the IRB which gave permission for the study.

Patient privacy and anonymity must be protected. Authors must confirm that no identifying information (such as names, images and identifying data) is included in the article. Exceptions may be made only if the individuals in question have provided explicit approval. For more information about patient privacy, anonymity and informed consent, please refer to the ICMJE Privacy and Confidentiality guidelines.

Animal Research

For studies involving regulated animals (which includes all live vertebrates and/or higher invertebrates), appropriate approval must have been obtained according to either international or local laws and regulations. Before conducting the research, approval must have been obtained from an institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee. Authors must also include this information detailing their approval as part of their Materials & Methods section (including the name of the granting organization and the protocol number). It should be noted that non-human primates research is subject to specific guidelines from the Weatherall (2006) report (The Use of Non-Human Primates in Research).

For research conducted on non-regulated animals, the author must explain why ethical approval was not required. The handling of experimental animals should be held to the highest standards kept by the author’s institution.

Cureus strongly encourages all authors to comply with the 'Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments' (ARRIVE) guidelines, developed by NC3Rs. Articles should be specific in descriptions of the organism(s) used in the study. When known, these descriptions should indicate strain names.

Publication Ethics and COPE

Cureus adheres to the COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines. Cureus EICs follow recommended COPE procedures whenever alerted to an issue requiring investigation.

Cureus is committed and adheres to the prevailing industry standards and procedures for investigating publication ethics.

Cureus does not tolerate plagiarism, data or figure manipulation, knowingly providing incorrect information, copyright infringement, inaccurate author attributions, attempts to inappropriately manipulate the peer review process, failures to declare conflicts of interest, fraud and libel. This list should not be considered exhaustive – those with additional questions should investigate additional resources found at the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Cureus pledges to rigorously enforce all standards, and promptly follow up on any transgressions. In extreme cases, this may call for article retraction and the reporting of individuals to their employer, institution or some appropriate body for further investigation. Any complaints or tips regarding the above should be directed to [email protected].

Discipline Specific Standards

We strongly recommend all authors adhere to the reporting standards adopted by their field or study design. The following is a list of standards that should be followed depending on the study type:

Articles reporting on protein structures should follow the standards within the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (a general resource listing reporting standards and worldwide deposition databases for protein information).

Articles reporting on diagnostic accuracy studies (studies evaluating the ability of a test to differentiate between patients who have the target condition and those who do not have the target condition) should follow the STARD requirements.

Articles reporting on clinical trials must follow the WHO definition of a clinical trial. In accordance with the ICMJE guidelines, all trials initiated from July 1st, 2005 must be registered in an approved registry. Unregistered trials will not be considered.

Reports of systematic reviews and meta-analyses must use the PRISMA statement for clinical articles, which may be used for all non-clinical articles. Authors should include a completed PRISMA checklist and flow diagram to accompany their text and should state (within their Materials & Methods section) whether a protocol exists for their systematic review (if so, a copy of the protocol must be supplied as supplemental information). Authors may register their systematic review (e.g. in a registry such as PROSPERO) and should provide the registry number in their article. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses should include those terms in the title, abstract and/or full article.

Reports utilizing quantitative real time PCR should follow the MIQE guidelines and checklist.

Articles reporting on microarray experiments should conform to the standards published by the Functional Genomics Data Society, the most well known being the MIAME guidelines. The MIAME checklist must be provided, and all data from the experiments must be deposited in a publicly accessible database (ArrayExpress or GEO) with the accession numbers provided in the article.

Articles which report on medical observational/epidemiological studies (specifically cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies) must adhere to the STROBE initiative.

In addition, Cureus suggests that authors consult the EQUATOR Network (a general resource listing various reporting standards for health research studies); the MIBBI Portal (a listing of minimum information guidelines from diverse bioscience communities); or the BioSharing site for additional reporting guidelines or checklists which might apply to their work.

Generally speaking, data should be referred to by the most specific identifier available for the database archive to which it is submitted.


All information regarding submitted articles is confidential, and Cureus will never publicly comment on submitted or rejected articles. Additionally, reviewer identities will remain confidential unless permission is given to reveal those identities. Authors, reviewers and Editors-in-Chief must also treat all correspondence as confidential unless explicitly stated otherwise.

Commenting Policies

Cureus requires that all public comments follow the normal standards of professional discourse. Users must sign in to their Cureus profile in order to comment on an article or poster. Under no circumstances does Cureus allow anonymous or pseudonymous commenting or user profiles. Additionally, Cureus maintains a zero tolerance policy for any language deemed insulting, inflammatory, obscene or libelous.

All comments which do not meet these standards will be removed, while repeat offenders will have their commenting rights revoked.

Cureus publishes all accepted articles under a CC-BY license.

It is the author’s responsibility to obtain the appropriate permissions from the original publisher to republish any previously published text, figures, tables, supplementary information, etc., in an open access journal under a CC-BY license.

Cureus does not accept articles that have previously appeared in a recognized peer-reviewed journal (as this represents dual publication).

Cureus does accept submissions which have previously been presented at conferences or appeared in other ‘non-journal’ venues (for example: blogs or posters).

Retraction Policy

Cureus reserves the right to retract articles that are found to be fraudulent (e.g. containing data manipulation or misrepresentation) or in serious breach of one of our policies. Evidence of plagiarism, falsification of data, or other scientific misconduct associated with a published article is determined at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Any scientific misconduct will result in removal of the article and the printing of a retraction as is consistent with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. For more information on the Cureus retraction policy, please contact us at [email protected].