The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic after it spread to 213 countries, including the U.S which has the highest number of cases in the world. About 80% of COVID-19 infections are mild or asymptomatic and never require hospitalization but about 5% of patients become critically ill and develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The widely used management for ARDS in COVID-19 has been in line with the standard approach, but the need to adjust the treatment protocols has been questioned based on the reports of higher mortality risk among those requiring mechanical ventilation. Treatment options for this widespread disease are limited and there are no definitive therapies or vaccines until now. Although some antimalarial and antiviral drugs may prove effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), their safety and efficacy are still under clinical trials. We conducted a systematic review of case reports on ARDS in SARS-CoV-2 infection to summarize the clinical presentation, laboratory and chest imaging findings, management protocols, and outcome of ARDS in COVID-19-positive patients. We need more data and established studies for the effective management of the novel SARS-CoV-2 and to reduce mortality in high-risk patients.