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Original article
peer-reviewed

Relationship Between the Intersesamoid Ligament and Sesamoid Bones in Cadaveric Feet with Hallux Valgus



Abstract

There is heterogeneity in the literature regarding the anatomy, exact location, and definition of the intersesamoid ligament (IL). Anatomic knowledge of the IL and its variations are important for surgeons who undertake corrective surgery for hallux abducto valgus (HAV). The IL was dissected in 16 feet from 32 formalin-fixed cadavers (12 females, four males; mean age at death, 76.6 years) to examine its morphology. The length, width, and thickness of its constituent bands were recorded with a digital caliper. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used to investigate the relationships between band size, age at death, and sex. A literature review was conducted to compare our data to those of previous studies. Results suggest that the size of the sesamoids may change as a result of HAV deforming forces, which may cause lengthening of the IL. The IL stabilizes the sesamoid apparatus of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) and should be evaluated in HAV correction. Anatomic knowledge of the complex morphology and relations between the IL and sesamoids is critically important for surgeons correcting HAV deformities.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Relationship Between the Intersesamoid Ligament and Sesamoid Bones in Cadaveric Feet with Hallux Valgus


Author Information

Regina C. Fiacco

New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Garen M. Ream

New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Charlotte Wilson Corresponding Author

Seattle Science Foundation

R. Shane Tubbs

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Marios Loukas

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

Piotr B. Kozlowski

Neurology, Neuromedlab

Anthony C. DiLandro

Division of Pre Clinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Kevin T. Jules

Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Anthony V. D'Antoni

Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Ms. Linda Chusuei for helping with the figures. Most importantly, the authors graciously thank the persons who donated their bodies for the advancement of medical education and research.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Relationship Between the Intersesamoid Ligament and Sesamoid Bones in Cadaveric Feet with Hallux Valgus


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Relationship Between the Intersesamoid Ligament and Sesamoid Bones in Cadaveric Feet with Hallux Valgus

Regina C. Fiacco">Regina C. Fiacco, Garen M. Ream">Garen M. Ream, Charlotte Wilson">Charlotte Wilson , R. Shane Tubbs">R. Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas">Marios Loukas, Piotr B. Kozlowski">Piotr B. Kozlowski, Anthony C. DiLandro ">Anthony C. DiLandro , Kevin T. Jules">Kevin T. Jules, Anthony V. D'Antoni">Anthony V. D'Antoni

  • Author Information
    Regina C. Fiacco

    New York College of Podiatric Medicine

    Garen M. Ream

    New York College of Podiatric Medicine

    Charlotte Wilson Corresponding Author

    Seattle Science Foundation

    R. Shane Tubbs

    Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

    Marios Loukas

    Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

    Piotr B. Kozlowski

    Neurology, Neuromedlab

    Anthony C. DiLandro

    Division of Pre Clinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

    Kevin T. Jules

    Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

    Anthony V. D'Antoni

    Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements

    The authors thank Ms. Linda Chusuei for helping with the figures. Most importantly, the authors graciously thank the persons who donated their bodies for the advancement of medical education and research.


    Article Information

    Published: November 03, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1819

    Cite this article as:

    Fiacco R C, Ream G M, Wilson C, et al. (November 03, 2017) Relationship Between the Intersesamoid Ligament and Sesamoid Bones in Cadaveric Feet with Hallux Valgus. Cureus 9(11): e1819. doi:10.7759/cureus.1819

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: October 25, 2017
    Peer review began: October 30, 2017
    Peer review concluded: October 30, 2017
    Published: November 03, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Fiacco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

There is heterogeneity in the literature regarding the anatomy, exact location, and definition of the intersesamoid ligament (IL). Anatomic knowledge of the IL and its variations are important for surgeons who undertake corrective surgery for hallux abducto valgus (HAV). The IL was dissected in 16 feet from 32 formalin-fixed cadavers (12 females, four males; mean age at death, 76.6 years) to examine its morphology. The length, width, and thickness of its constituent bands were recorded with a digital caliper. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used to investigate the relationships between band size, age at death, and sex. A literature review was conducted to compare our data to those of previous studies. Results suggest that the size of the sesamoids may change as a result of HAV deforming forces, which may cause lengthening of the IL. The IL stabilizes the sesamoid apparatus of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) and should be evaluated in HAV correction. Anatomic knowledge of the complex morphology and relations between the IL and sesamoids is critically important for surgeons correcting HAV deformities.



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Regina C. Fiacco

New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Garen M. Ream

New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Charlotte Wilson, Research fellow

Seattle Science Foundation

For correspondence:
charlotte.wilson@colorado.edu

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Marios Loukas

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

Piotr B. Kozlowski

Neurology, Neuromedlab

Anthony C. DiLandro

Division of Pre Clinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Kevin T. Jules

Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Anthony V. D'Antoni, Ph.D., Associate Professor

Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Regina C. Fiacco

New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Garen M. Ream

New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Charlotte Wilson, Research fellow

Seattle Science Foundation

For correspondence:
charlotte.wilson@colorado.edu

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Marios Loukas

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

Piotr B. Kozlowski

Neurology, Neuromedlab

Anthony C. DiLandro

Division of Pre Clinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Kevin T. Jules

Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine

Anthony V. D'Antoni, Ph.D., Associate Professor

Department of Surgery, New York College of Podiatric Medicine