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Original article
peer-reviewed

Anatomical Study of the Zygomaticotemporal Branch Inside the Orbit



Abstract

The location of the opening of the zygomaticotemporal branch (ZTb) of the zygomatic nerve inside the orbit (ZTFIN) has significant surgical implications. This study was conducted to locate the ZTFIN and investigate the variations of the ZTb inside the orbit. A total of 20 sides from 10 fresh frozen cadaveric Caucasian heads were used in this study. The vertical distance between the inferior margin of the orbit and ZTFIN (V-ZTFIN), the horizontal distance between the lateral margin of the orbit and ZTFIN (H-ZTFIN), and the diameter of the ZTFIN (D-ZTFIN) were measured. The patterns of the ZTb inside the orbit were classified into five different groups: both ZTb and LN innervating the lacrimal gland independently (Group A), both ZTb and LN innervating the lacrimal gland with a communicating branch (Group B), ZTb joining the LN without a branch to the lacrimal gland (Group C), the ZTb going outside the orbit through ZTFIN without a branch to the lacrimal gland nor LN (Group D), and absence of the ZTb (Group E). The D-ZTFIN V-ZTFIN H-ZTFIN ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mm, 6.6 to 21.5 mm, 2.0 to 11.3 mm, respectively. The number of sides in Groups A, B, C, D, and E were 13 sides (65%), three sides (15%), none (0%), two sides (10%), and two sides (10%), respectively. Such anatomical knowledge might reduce complications following surgery in and around the ZTb.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Anatomical Study of the Zygomaticotemporal Branch Inside the Orbit


Author Information

Joe Iwanaga

Seattle Science Foundation

Charlotte Wilson Corresponding Author

Seattle Science Foundation

Koichi Watanabe

Department of Anatomy, Kurume University School of Medicine

Rod J. Oskouian

Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

R. Shane Tubbs

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. This study involves cadaveric human specimens. . Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Acknowledgements

The author thanks those who donated their bodies for anatomical research.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Anatomical Study of the Zygomaticotemporal Branch Inside the Orbit


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Anatomical Study of the Zygomaticotemporal Branch Inside the Orbit

Joe Iwanaga">Joe Iwanaga, Charlotte Wilson">Charlotte Wilson , Koichi Watanabe">Koichi Watanabe, Rod J. Oskouian">Rod J. Oskouian, R. Shane Tubbs">R. Shane Tubbs

  • Author Information
    Joe Iwanaga

    Seattle Science Foundation

    Charlotte Wilson Corresponding Author

    Seattle Science Foundation

    Koichi Watanabe

    Department of Anatomy, Kurume University School of Medicine

    Rod J. Oskouian

    Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

    R. Shane Tubbs

    Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. This study involves cadaveric human specimens. . Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements

    The author thanks those who donated their bodies for anatomical research.


    Article Information

    Published: September 29, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1727

    Cite this article as:

    Iwanaga J, Wilson C, Watanabe K, et al. (September 29, 2017) Anatomical Study of the Zygomaticotemporal Branch Inside the Orbit. Cureus 9(9): e1727. doi:10.7759/cureus.1727

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: September 13, 2017
    Peer review began: September 19, 2017
    Peer review concluded: September 26, 2017
    Published: September 29, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Iwanaga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

The location of the opening of the zygomaticotemporal branch (ZTb) of the zygomatic nerve inside the orbit (ZTFIN) has significant surgical implications. This study was conducted to locate the ZTFIN and investigate the variations of the ZTb inside the orbit. A total of 20 sides from 10 fresh frozen cadaveric Caucasian heads were used in this study. The vertical distance between the inferior margin of the orbit and ZTFIN (V-ZTFIN), the horizontal distance between the lateral margin of the orbit and ZTFIN (H-ZTFIN), and the diameter of the ZTFIN (D-ZTFIN) were measured. The patterns of the ZTb inside the orbit were classified into five different groups: both ZTb and LN innervating the lacrimal gland independently (Group A), both ZTb and LN innervating the lacrimal gland with a communicating branch (Group B), ZTb joining the LN without a branch to the lacrimal gland (Group C), the ZTb going outside the orbit through ZTFIN without a branch to the lacrimal gland nor LN (Group D), and absence of the ZTb (Group E). The D-ZTFIN V-ZTFIN H-ZTFIN ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mm, 6.6 to 21.5 mm, 2.0 to 11.3 mm, respectively. The number of sides in Groups A, B, C, D, and E were 13 sides (65%), three sides (15%), none (0%), two sides (10%), and two sides (10%), respectively. Such anatomical knowledge might reduce complications following surgery in and around the ZTb.



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Joe Iwanaga, Ph.D., Assistant Professor

Seattle Science Foundation

Charlotte Wilson, Research fellow

Seattle Science Foundation

For correspondence:
charlotte.wilson@colorado.edu

Koichi Watanabe

Department of Anatomy, Kurume University School of Medicine

Rod J. Oskouian, M.D.

Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Joe Iwanaga, Ph.D., Assistant Professor

Seattle Science Foundation

Charlotte Wilson, Research fellow

Seattle Science Foundation

For correspondence:
charlotte.wilson@colorado.edu

Koichi Watanabe

Department of Anatomy, Kurume University School of Medicine

Rod J. Oskouian, M.D.

Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation