"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."

Margaret Mead
Review article
peer-reviewed

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst and Mucoid Degeneration: A Review



Abstract

Mucoid degeneration and ganglion cyst are two distinct non-traumatic lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that most commonly occur discretely but occasionally coexist. They are relatively uncommon, and their exact aetiopathogenesis is still not clear. ACL ganglion cyst occurs more frequently among relatively younger patients compared to mucoid degeneration. They could be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally while evaluating the knee for other pathologies. Symptomatic cases of the two conditions present with nonspecific chronic pain, painful limitation of terminal flexion and extension, and mechanical block (among other symptoms), similar to that of other internal derangement pathologies of the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging is the investigation of choice, and diagnostic criteria are defined. Arthroscopic management of these conditions efficiently provides an improvement in symptoms without instability. Computed tomography scan guided aspiration is also useful in selected cases of ACL ganglion cyst. ACL ganglion cyst and mucoid degeneration should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic knee pain and stiffness of unspecified etiology.



Want to read more?

Create a free account to continue reading this article.

Already a member? Login.



Review article
peer-reviewed

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst and Mucoid Degeneration: A Review


Author Information

Raju Vaishya

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

Abdulrazaq Esin Issa

Orthopaedics, GOMBE State University

Amit Kumar Agarwal Corresponding Author

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

Vipul Vijay

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Review article
peer-reviewed

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst and Mucoid Degeneration: A Review


Figures etc.

Share
Review article
peer-reviewed

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst and Mucoid Degeneration: A Review

Raju Vaishya">Raju Vaishya, Abdulrazaq Esin Issa">Abdulrazaq Esin Issa, Amit Kumar Agarwal">Amit Kumar Agarwal , Vipul Vijay">Vipul Vijay

  • Author Information
    Raju Vaishya

    Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

    Abdulrazaq Esin Issa

    Orthopaedics, GOMBE State University

    Amit Kumar Agarwal Corresponding Author

    Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

    Vipul Vijay

    Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: September 13, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1682

    Cite this article as:

    Vaishya R, Esin issa A, Agarwal A, et al. (September 13, 2017) Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst and Mucoid Degeneration: A Review. Cureus 9(9): e1682. doi:10.7759/cureus.1682

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: July 24, 2017
    Peer review began: August 15, 2017
    Peer review concluded: September 06, 2017
    Published: September 13, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Vaishya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Mucoid degeneration and ganglion cyst are two distinct non-traumatic lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that most commonly occur discretely but occasionally coexist. They are relatively uncommon, and their exact aetiopathogenesis is still not clear. ACL ganglion cyst occurs more frequently among relatively younger patients compared to mucoid degeneration. They could be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally while evaluating the knee for other pathologies. Symptomatic cases of the two conditions present with nonspecific chronic pain, painful limitation of terminal flexion and extension, and mechanical block (among other symptoms), similar to that of other internal derangement pathologies of the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging is the investigation of choice, and diagnostic criteria are defined. Arthroscopic management of these conditions efficiently provides an improvement in symptoms without instability. Computed tomography scan guided aspiration is also useful in selected cases of ACL ganglion cyst. ACL ganglion cyst and mucoid degeneration should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic knee pain and stiffness of unspecified etiology.



Want to read more?

Create a free account to continue reading this article.

Already a member? Login.



Raju Vaishya, M.D., Professor

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

Abdulrazaq Esin Issa, None

Orthopaedics, GOMBE State University

Amit Kumar Agarwal, Associate Professor

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

For correspondence:
amitorthopgi@yahoo.co.in

Vipul Vijay

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

Raju Vaishya, M.D., Professor

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

Abdulrazaq Esin Issa, None

Orthopaedics, GOMBE State University

Amit Kumar Agarwal, Associate Professor

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

For correspondence:
amitorthopgi@yahoo.co.in

Vipul Vijay

Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi