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Review article
peer-reviewed

Respiratory Failure Following Organophosphate Poisoning: A Literature Review



Abstract

Organophosphates (OPs) account for a large portion of suicides globally. OP manifests as cholinergic crises, which underlie respiratory failure. There are many pathways by which respiration is inhibited secondary to organophosphate poisoning. These include central as well as peripheral mechanisms, with central mechanisms predominating. We conducted a literature review in June 2017. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for studies that reported acute organophosphate poisoning in humans. In our review, data were collected from studies published during the years 2001 to 2016. The data consisted of 1,996 patients with organophosphate poisoning, of which 491 (24.6%) required ventilatory support secondary to respiratory failure. Treatment offered to OP poisoning patients should focus on its pathophysiology to benefit from the future outcomes. Recent advances direct the need for a central nervous system (CNS) protective strategy for future prevention and treatment of events associated with cholinergic crises.



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Review article
peer-reviewed

Respiratory Failure Following Organophosphate Poisoning: A Literature Review


Author Information

Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani

Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Ujala Zubair Corresponding Author

Medicine, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

Osama Salam

Sindh Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

Zarafshan Zubair

MBBS, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.


Review article
peer-reviewed

Respiratory Failure Following Organophosphate Poisoning: A Literature Review


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Review article
peer-reviewed

Respiratory Failure Following Organophosphate Poisoning: A Literature Review

  • Author Information
    Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani

    Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Ujala Zubair Corresponding Author

    Medicine, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

    Osama Salam

    Sindh Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

    Zarafshan Zubair

    MBBS, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: September 03, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1651

    Cite this article as:

    Giyanwani P, Zubair U, Salam O, et al. (September 03, 2017) Respiratory Failure Following Organophosphate Poisoning: A Literature Review . Cureus 9(9): e1651. doi:10.7759/cureus.1651

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: July 20, 2017
    Peer review began: August 15, 2017
    Peer review concluded: September 01, 2017
    Published: September 03, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Giyanwani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Organophosphates (OPs) account for a large portion of suicides globally. OP manifests as cholinergic crises, which underlie respiratory failure. There are many pathways by which respiration is inhibited secondary to organophosphate poisoning. These include central as well as peripheral mechanisms, with central mechanisms predominating. We conducted a literature review in June 2017. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for studies that reported acute organophosphate poisoning in humans. In our review, data were collected from studies published during the years 2001 to 2016. The data consisted of 1,996 patients with organophosphate poisoning, of which 491 (24.6%) required ventilatory support secondary to respiratory failure. Treatment offered to OP poisoning patients should focus on its pathophysiology to benefit from the future outcomes. Recent advances direct the need for a central nervous system (CNS) protective strategy for future prevention and treatment of events associated with cholinergic crises.



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Create a free account to continue reading this article.

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Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani, M.D.

Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Ujala Zubair

Medicine, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

For correspondence:
ujalazubair94@hotmail.com

Osama Salam, Medical Student

Sindh Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

Zarafshan Zubair

MBBS, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani, M.D.

Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Ujala Zubair

Medicine, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

For correspondence:
ujalazubair94@hotmail.com

Osama Salam, Medical Student

Sindh Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences

Zarafshan Zubair

MBBS, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan