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Case report
peer-reviewed

Xiphoid Process Variations: A Review with an Extremely Unusual Case Report



Abstract

The xiphoid process is a small bony feature of the anterior thoracic wall just inferior to the sternum corpus. Although the xiphoid process is commonly represented as a straight, fully ossified bone in educational textbooks, reports of anomalous processes flood the literature. The xiphoid process can be broad, thin, monofid, bifid, trifid, curved, or deflected and contain foramina. Variations can be mistaken for epigastric masses. Herein, we report an extremely unusual bifid xiphoid process that is deflected anteriorly. This case is discussed in the context of the misdiagnosis of xiphoid process variations and its importance to the clinician.



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Case report
peer-reviewed

Xiphoid Process Variations: A Review with an Extremely Unusual Case Report


Author Information

Faizullah Mashriqi Corresponding Author

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

Anthony V. D'Antoni

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

R. Shane Tubbs

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Case report
peer-reviewed

Xiphoid Process Variations: A Review with an Extremely Unusual Case Report


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Case report
peer-reviewed

Xiphoid Process Variations: A Review with an Extremely Unusual Case Report

Faizullah Mashriqi">Faizullah Mashriqi , Anthony V. D'Antoni">Anthony V. D'Antoni, R. Shane Tubbs">R. Shane Tubbs

  • Author Information
    Faizullah Mashriqi Corresponding Author

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

    Anthony V. D'Antoni

    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

    R. Shane Tubbs

    Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: August 27, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1613

    Cite this article as:

    Mashriqi F, D'antoni A V, Tubbs R (August 27, 2017) Xiphoid Process Variations: A Review with an Extremely Unusual Case Report. Cureus 9(8): e1613. doi:10.7759/cureus.1613

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: July 05, 2017
    Peer review began: August 23, 2017
    Peer review concluded: August 24, 2017
    Published: August 27, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Mashriqi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

The xiphoid process is a small bony feature of the anterior thoracic wall just inferior to the sternum corpus. Although the xiphoid process is commonly represented as a straight, fully ossified bone in educational textbooks, reports of anomalous processes flood the literature. The xiphoid process can be broad, thin, monofid, bifid, trifid, curved, or deflected and contain foramina. Variations can be mistaken for epigastric masses. Herein, we report an extremely unusual bifid xiphoid process that is deflected anteriorly. This case is discussed in the context of the misdiagnosis of xiphoid process variations and its importance to the clinician.



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Create a free account to continue reading this article.

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Faizullah Mashriqi, Medical Student

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

For correspondence:
fmashri000@citymail.cuny.edu

Anthony V. D'Antoni

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Faizullah Mashriqi, Medical Student

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

For correspondence:
fmashri000@citymail.cuny.edu

Anthony V. D'Antoni

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation