"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."

Margaret Mead
Review article
peer-reviewed

A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing



Abstract

Antibiotics are the ‘wonder drugs’ to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. The aim of this review is to explore the origin, development, and the current state of antibiotic resistance, regulation, and challenges by examining available literature. We found that antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate. A growing list of infections i.e., pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea are becoming harder and at times impossible to treat while antibiotics are becoming less effective. Antibiotic-resistant infections correlate with the level of antibiotic consumption. Non-judicial use of antibiotics is mostly responsible for making the microbes resistant. The antibiotic treatment repertoire for existing or emerging hard-to-treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is limited, resulting in high morbidity and mortality report. This review article reiterates the optimal use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health to reduce antibiotic resistance. Evidence from the literature suggests that the knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance in the population is still scarce. Therefore, the need of educating patients and the public is essential to fight against the antimicrobial resistance battle.



Want to read more?

Create a free account to continue reading this article.

Already a member? Login.



Review article
peer-reviewed

A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing


Author Information

Sojib Bin Zaman Corresponding Author

Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charité- University Medicine Berlin, Germany

Muhammed Awlad Hussain

Projahnmo Study Site, Johns Hopkin's University Bangladesh

Rachel Nye

Health Consultant, Botane Skin Activates, Cape Town, South Africa

Varshil Mehta

Department of Internal Medicine, MGM Medical College, Navi Mumbai, India

Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, USA

Editorial Board Member, Cureus

Kazi Taib Mamun

Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh

Naznin Hossain

Department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.


Review article
peer-reviewed

A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing


Figures etc.

Share
Review article
peer-reviewed

A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing

  • Author Information
    Sojib Bin Zaman Corresponding Author

    Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

    Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charité- University Medicine Berlin, Germany

    Muhammed Awlad Hussain

    Projahnmo Study Site, Johns Hopkin's University Bangladesh

    Rachel Nye

    Health Consultant, Botane Skin Activates, Cape Town, South Africa

    Varshil Mehta

    Department of Internal Medicine, MGM Medical College, Navi Mumbai, India

    Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, USA

    Editorial Board Member, Cureus

    Kazi Taib Mamun

    Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh

    Naznin Hossain

    Department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: June 28, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1403

    Cite this article as:

    Zaman S, Hussain M, Nye R, et al. (June 28, 2017) A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing. Cureus 9(6): e1403. doi:10.7759/cureus.1403

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: June 16, 2017
    Peer review began: June 20, 2017
    Peer review concluded: June 21, 2017
    Published: June 28, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Zaman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Antibiotics are the ‘wonder drugs’ to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. The aim of this review is to explore the origin, development, and the current state of antibiotic resistance, regulation, and challenges by examining available literature. We found that antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate. A growing list of infections i.e., pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea are becoming harder and at times impossible to treat while antibiotics are becoming less effective. Antibiotic-resistant infections correlate with the level of antibiotic consumption. Non-judicial use of antibiotics is mostly responsible for making the microbes resistant. The antibiotic treatment repertoire for existing or emerging hard-to-treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is limited, resulting in high morbidity and mortality report. This review article reiterates the optimal use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health to reduce antibiotic resistance. Evidence from the literature suggests that the knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance in the population is still scarce. Therefore, the need of educating patients and the public is essential to fight against the antimicrobial resistance battle.



Want to read more?

Create a free account to continue reading this article.

Already a member? Login.



Sojib Bin Zaman, M.D., M.P.H., M.Sc.

Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

For correspondence:
sojibbz@gmail.com

Muhammed Awlad Hussain

Projahnmo Study Site, Johns Hopkin's University Bangladesh

Rachel Nye

Health Consultant, Botane Skin Activates, Cape Town, South Africa

Varshil Mehta, M.D.

Department of Internal Medicine, MGM Medical College, Navi Mumbai, India

Kazi Taib Mamun

Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh

Naznin Hossain

Department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Sojib Bin Zaman, M.D., M.P.H., M.Sc.

Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

For correspondence:
sojibbz@gmail.com

Muhammed Awlad Hussain

Projahnmo Study Site, Johns Hopkin's University Bangladesh

Rachel Nye

Health Consultant, Botane Skin Activates, Cape Town, South Africa

Varshil Mehta, M.D.

Department of Internal Medicine, MGM Medical College, Navi Mumbai, India

Kazi Taib Mamun

Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh

Naznin Hossain

Department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh