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Original article
peer-reviewed

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Benign Testicular Disorders in the Educated Young Men of Pakistan



Abstract

Background

It has been seen that despite the increasing incidence of benign testicular disorders (BTDs), little work has been done towards its awareness among the male populace. Also, the trend of not seeking help in this regard is concerning. In this study, we aim to better perceive the level of understanding and common practices regarding BTDs among educated young men.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was carried out among two groups of ages 14-20 and 21-28 years. The inclusion criterion was that of educated males in an urban setting. Data were collected through a standardized questionnaire using cluster sampling by independent interviewers. The questionnaire consisted of four parts dealing with demographics, knowledge, attitudes and practices. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used as the primary statistical tests.

Results

The sample population consisted of an equal number of participants between the ages of 14 and 20, and between 21 and 28 years (n = 200, 50%). About half the participants (n = 215, 53.8%) were not familiar with the term BTDs. The majority (n = 324, 78.8%) of participants were not aware of symptoms of BTDs. Three-fourth of the participants believed that the subject is considered taboo in Pakistan (n = 307, 73.6%) while a majority of participants (n = 340, 85%) believed media coverage can help spread awareness of BTDs. A huge number (n = 268, 67%) thought that BTDs can cause fertility problems while one-third of them would not perform testicular self-examination (TSE) in case of pain or swelling in the scrotal region (n = 119, 29.8). The level of education and age were significantly associated with the knowledge regarding symptoms and types of BTDs.

Conclusion

Knowledge of BTDs and practices of TSE in the young educated men of Karachi are alarmingly poor. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create awareness at all levels using different strategies and platforms.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Benign Testicular Disorders in the Educated Young Men of Pakistan


Author Information

Dua Saleem

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Samra Muneer

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Rajaa Fatima Younus Khan

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Rohan Kumar Ochani

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Syed Saadan Ahmed Corresponding Author

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Maha Begg

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Tariq J. Siddiqi

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Syed Raza Abbas

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Muhammad W. Naseeb

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Muhammad Osama Farooqui

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Fahad H. Shaikh

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Hurmat Ullah

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Kaneez Fatima

Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Informed consent obtained. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Benign Testicular Disorders in the Educated Young Men of Pakistan


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Benign Testicular Disorders in the Educated Young Men of Pakistan

Dua Saleem">Dua Saleem, Samra Muneer">Samra Muneer, Rajaa Fatima Younus Khan">Rajaa Fatima Younus Khan, Rohan Kumar Ochani">Rohan Kumar Ochani, Syed Saadan Ahmed">Syed Saadan Ahmed , Maha Begg">Maha Begg, Tariq J. Siddiqi">Tariq J. Siddiqi, Syed Raza Abbas">Syed Raza Abbas, Muhammad W. Naseeb">Muhammad W. Naseeb, Muhammad Osama Farooqui">Muhammad Osama Farooqui, Fahad H. Shaikh">Fahad H. Shaikh, Ramiz Kirmani">Ramiz Kirmani, Hurmat Ullah">Hurmat Ullah, Kaneez Fatima">Kaneez Fatima

  • Author Information
    Dua Saleem

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Samra Muneer

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Rajaa Fatima Younus Khan

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Rohan Kumar Ochani

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Syed Saadan Ahmed Corresponding Author

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Maha Begg

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Tariq J. Siddiqi

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Syed Raza Abbas

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Muhammad W. Naseeb

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Muhammad Osama Farooqui

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Fahad H. Shaikh

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Ramiz Kirmani

    DIMC

    Hurmat Ullah

    Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

    Kaneez Fatima

    Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Informed consent obtained. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: August 13, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1563

    Cite this article as:

    Saleem D, Muneer S, Younus khan R, et al. (August 13, 2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Benign Testicular Disorders in the Educated Young Men of Pakistan. Cureus 9(8): e1563. doi:10.7759/cureus.1563

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: June 27, 2017
    Peer review began: July 06, 2017
    Peer review concluded: July 29, 2017
    Published: August 13, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Saleem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Background

It has been seen that despite the increasing incidence of benign testicular disorders (BTDs), little work has been done towards its awareness among the male populace. Also, the trend of not seeking help in this regard is concerning. In this study, we aim to better perceive the level of understanding and common practices regarding BTDs among educated young men.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was carried out among two groups of ages 14-20 and 21-28 years. The inclusion criterion was that of educated males in an urban setting. Data were collected through a standardized questionnaire using cluster sampling by independent interviewers. The questionnaire consisted of four parts dealing with demographics, knowledge, attitudes and practices. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used as the primary statistical tests.

Results

The sample population consisted of an equal number of participants between the ages of 14 and 20, and between 21 and 28 years (n = 200, 50%). About half the participants (n = 215, 53.8%) were not familiar with the term BTDs. The majority (n = 324, 78.8%) of participants were not aware of symptoms of BTDs. Three-fourth of the participants believed that the subject is considered taboo in Pakistan (n = 307, 73.6%) while a majority of participants (n = 340, 85%) believed media coverage can help spread awareness of BTDs. A huge number (n = 268, 67%) thought that BTDs can cause fertility problems while one-third of them would not perform testicular self-examination (TSE) in case of pain or swelling in the scrotal region (n = 119, 29.8). The level of education and age were significantly associated with the knowledge regarding symptoms and types of BTDs.

Conclusion

Knowledge of BTDs and practices of TSE in the young educated men of Karachi are alarmingly poor. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create awareness at all levels using different strategies and platforms.



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Create a free account to continue reading this article.

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Dua Saleem

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Samra Muneer

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Rajaa Fatima Younus Khan, Medical Student

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Rohan Kumar Ochani

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Syed Saadan Ahmed

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

For correspondence:
saadan-ahmed@live.com

Maha Begg

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Tariq J. Siddiqi

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Syed Raza Abbas, Medical Student

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Muhammad W. Naseeb, Medical Student

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Muhammad Osama Farooqui

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Fahad H. Shaikh

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Ramiz Kirmani

DIMC

Hurmat Ullah

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Kaneez Fatima

Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Dua Saleem

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Samra Muneer

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Rajaa Fatima Younus Khan, Medical Student

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Rohan Kumar Ochani

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Syed Saadan Ahmed

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

For correspondence:
saadan-ahmed@live.com

Maha Begg

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Tariq J. Siddiqi

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Syed Raza Abbas, Medical Student

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Muhammad W. Naseeb, Medical Student

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Muhammad Osama Farooqui

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Fahad H. Shaikh

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Ramiz Kirmani

DIMC

Hurmat Ullah

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan

Kaneez Fatima

Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan