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Original article
peer-reviewed

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Show Unique Cytokine Profiles



Abstract

Introduction

Networks of cytokines have been implicated in both forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). While CD has associated with T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses, UC shows Th2 patterns. Recent studies reported that the inflamed intestinal regions in both CD and UC are significantly infiltrated with a newly described set of T helper, the Th17 cells. These cells have unique cytokine responses. These findings prompted us to further explore the cytokine profiles of CD and UC with a special focus on the Th2 and Th17 related mediators.

Methods

Cytokine transcripts were compared using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both inflamed and non-inflamed mucosal specimens from patients with active CD (n=35) or UC (n=20) and without CD or UC (Control, n=54).

Results

In both CD and UC, interleukin (IL)-12 (p40), IL-18, IL-21 and IL-27 transcript levels were higher than in Control. The highest levels of cytokines were found in the diseased areas of CD and UC with only one exception; IL-12 (p40) in CD was more up-regulated in the non-diseased areas compared to diseased CD and Control specimens. CD samples but not UC specimens showed significant IL-17, IL-23, and IL-32 mRNA expression indicating a trend toward Th17 responses. In UC, however, IL-5, IL-13, IL-15 and IL-33 mRNA levels were significantly increased when compared to both CD and Control.

Conclusions

The unique patterns of cytokine networks can help us to better understand the differential expression of their characteristic pathophysiology. In addition, the pharmacological regulation of these small molecules may hold promise to more effective and personalized therapies.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Show Unique Cytokine Profiles


Author Information

Zoltan H. Nemeth Corresponding Author

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Dorian A. Bogdanovski

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Patricia Barratt-Stopper

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Samantha R. Paglinco

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Luca Antonioli

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa

Rolando H. Rolandelli

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Morristown Medical Center IRB issued approval R06-12-018. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Show Unique Cytokine Profiles


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Show Unique Cytokine Profiles

Zoltan H. Nemeth">Zoltan H. Nemeth , Dorian A. Bogdanovski">Dorian A. Bogdanovski, Patricia Barratt-Stopper">Patricia Barratt-Stopper, Samantha R. Paglinco">Samantha R. Paglinco, Luca Antonioli">Luca Antonioli, Rolando H. Rolandelli">Rolando H. Rolandelli

  • Author Information
    Zoltan H. Nemeth Corresponding Author

    Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

    Dorian A. Bogdanovski

    Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

    Patricia Barratt-Stopper

    Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

    Samantha R. Paglinco

    Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

    Luca Antonioli

    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa

    Rolando H. Rolandelli

    Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Morristown Medical Center IRB issued approval R06-12-018. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: April 19, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1177

    Cite this article as:

    Nemeth Z H, Bogdanovski D A, Barratt-stopper P, et al. (April 19, 2017) Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Show Unique Cytokine Profiles. Cureus 9(4): e1177. doi:10.7759/cureus.1177

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: January 25, 2017
    Peer review began: January 31, 2017
    Peer review concluded: April 13, 2017
    Published: April 19, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Nemeth et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Introduction

Networks of cytokines have been implicated in both forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). While CD has associated with T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses, UC shows Th2 patterns. Recent studies reported that the inflamed intestinal regions in both CD and UC are significantly infiltrated with a newly described set of T helper, the Th17 cells. These cells have unique cytokine responses. These findings prompted us to further explore the cytokine profiles of CD and UC with a special focus on the Th2 and Th17 related mediators.

Methods

Cytokine transcripts were compared using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both inflamed and non-inflamed mucosal specimens from patients with active CD (n=35) or UC (n=20) and without CD or UC (Control, n=54).

Results

In both CD and UC, interleukin (IL)-12 (p40), IL-18, IL-21 and IL-27 transcript levels were higher than in Control. The highest levels of cytokines were found in the diseased areas of CD and UC with only one exception; IL-12 (p40) in CD was more up-regulated in the non-diseased areas compared to diseased CD and Control specimens. CD samples but not UC specimens showed significant IL-17, IL-23, and IL-32 mRNA expression indicating a trend toward Th17 responses. In UC, however, IL-5, IL-13, IL-15 and IL-33 mRNA levels were significantly increased when compared to both CD and Control.

Conclusions

The unique patterns of cytokine networks can help us to better understand the differential expression of their characteristic pathophysiology. In addition, the pharmacological regulation of these small molecules may hold promise to more effective and personalized therapies.



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Create a free account to continue reading this article.

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Zoltan H. Nemeth

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

For correspondence:
zoltan.nemeth@atlantichealth.org

Dorian A. Bogdanovski

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Patricia Barratt-Stopper

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Samantha R. Paglinco

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Luca Antonioli

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa

Rolando H. Rolandelli

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Zoltan H. Nemeth

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

For correspondence:
zoltan.nemeth@atlantichealth.org

Dorian A. Bogdanovski

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Patricia Barratt-Stopper

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Samantha R. Paglinco

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center

Luca Antonioli

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa

Rolando H. Rolandelli

Department of Surgery, Morristown Medical Center