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Original article
peer-reviewed

The Impact of Wearable Device Enabled Health Initiative on Physical Activity and Sleep



Abstract

Objectives

The Personal Health Management Study (PHMS) is an assessment of the effect of a voluntary employee-facing health initiative using a commercially-available wearable device implemented among 565 employees of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The results of the initiative on physical activity (measured as steps) and sleep is reported.

Methods

This was a 12-month, prospective, single-cohort intervention study using a wearable activity-measuring device tracking steps and sleep (entire study period) and a system of health-promoting incentives (first nine months of study period). The findings from the first nine study months are reported.

Results

The mixed model repeated measures approach was used to analyze the data. There was no significant difference in steps between the first month (7915.6 mean steps per person per day) and the last month (7853.4 mean steps per person per day) of the intervention. However, there was a seasonal decline in steps during the intervention period from fall to winter, followed by an increase in steps from winter to spring. In contrast, sleep tended to increase steadily throughout the study period, and the number of hours slept during the last month (7.52 mean hours per person per day) of the intervention was significantly greater than the number of hours slept during the first month (7.16 mean hours per person per day).

Conclusions

The impact of the initiative on physical activity and sleep differed over the period of time studied. While physical activity did not change between the first and last month of the intervention, the number of hours slept per night increased significantly. Although seasonal changes and study-device habituation may explain the pattern of change in physical activity, further evaluation is required to clarify the reasons underlying the difference in the impact of the initiative on the dynamics of steps and sleep.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

The Impact of Wearable Device Enabled Health Initiative on Physical Activity and Sleep


Author Information

Olga Crowley

Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

Laura Pugliese Corresponding Author

Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

Stan Kachnowski

Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology - New Delhi

New York Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University Medical Center

Ryder Trauma Center, University of Miami, Medical School

HITLAB, Healthcare Innovation & Technology Lab


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Chesapeake IRB issued approval Pro00008705. Animal subjects: This study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared the following conflicts of interest: Payment/services info: HITLAB received funding for this research from Boehringer Ingelheim.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Yvonne Bokhour for her editorial review and support in the preparation of this manuscript; Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.'s (HITLAB’s) research support team: Elise Kang, Michael Froehlich, Briana Britton and Vivian Lam for their contributions to the study implementation and data collection; and the Boehringer Ingelheim team, particularly Gati Dharani, for their support in designing and implementing the Personal Health Management Program.


Original article
peer-reviewed

The Impact of Wearable Device Enabled Health Initiative on Physical Activity and Sleep


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Original article
peer-reviewed

The Impact of Wearable Device Enabled Health Initiative on Physical Activity and Sleep

  • Author Information
    Olga Crowley

    Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

    Laura Pugliese Corresponding Author

    Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

    Stan Kachnowski

    Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology - New Delhi

    New York Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University Medical Center

    Ryder Trauma Center, University of Miami, Medical School

    HITLAB, Healthcare Innovation & Technology Lab


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Chesapeake IRB issued approval Pro00008705. Animal subjects: This study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared the following conflicts of interest: Payment/services info: HITLAB received funding for this research from Boehringer Ingelheim.

    Acknowledgements

    The authors would like to acknowledge Yvonne Bokhour for her editorial review and support in the preparation of this manuscript; Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.'s (HITLAB’s) research support team: Elise Kang, Michael Froehlich, Briana Britton and Vivian Lam for their contributions to the study implementation and data collection; and the Boehringer Ingelheim team, particularly Gati Dharani, for their support in designing and implementing the Personal Health Management Program.


    Article Information

    Published: October 11, 2016

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.825

    Cite this article as:

    Crowley O, Pugliese L, Kachnowski S (October 11, 2016) The Impact of Wearable Device Enabled Health Initiative on Physical Activity and Sleep. Cureus 8(10): e825. doi:10.7759/cureus.825

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: July 15, 2016
    Peer review began: July 18, 2016
    Peer review concluded: October 07, 2016
    Published: October 11, 2016

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2016
    Crowley et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Objectives

The Personal Health Management Study (PHMS) is an assessment of the effect of a voluntary employee-facing health initiative using a commercially-available wearable device implemented among 565 employees of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The results of the initiative on physical activity (measured as steps) and sleep is reported.

Methods

This was a 12-month, prospective, single-cohort intervention study using a wearable activity-measuring device tracking steps and sleep (entire study period) and a system of health-promoting incentives (first nine months of study period). The findings from the first nine study months are reported.

Results

The mixed model repeated measures approach was used to analyze the data. There was no significant difference in steps between the first month (7915.6 mean steps per person per day) and the last month (7853.4 mean steps per person per day) of the intervention. However, there was a seasonal decline in steps during the intervention period from fall to winter, followed by an increase in steps from winter to spring. In contrast, sleep tended to increase steadily throughout the study period, and the number of hours slept during the last month (7.52 mean hours per person per day) of the intervention was significantly greater than the number of hours slept during the first month (7.16 mean hours per person per day).

Conclusions

The impact of the initiative on physical activity and sleep differed over the period of time studied. While physical activity did not change between the first and last month of the intervention, the number of hours slept per night increased significantly. Although seasonal changes and study-device habituation may explain the pattern of change in physical activity, further evaluation is required to clarify the reasons underlying the difference in the impact of the initiative on the dynamics of steps and sleep.



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Olga Crowley

Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

Laura Pugliese

Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

For correspondence:
author@hitlab.org

Stan Kachnowski, Ph.D., Professor

Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology - New Delhi

Olga Crowley

Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

Laura Pugliese

Innovation Research, Healthcare Innovation and Technology Lab, Inc.

For correspondence:
author@hitlab.org

Stan Kachnowski, Ph.D., Professor

Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology - New Delhi