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Original article
peer-reviewed

Propolis, A Hope for the Future in Treating Resistant Periodontal Pathogens



Abstract

Introduction: Periodontitis is one of the most common causes of tooth loss worldwide. Recently, special attention has been paid to natural medication for its treatment. For this purpose, propolis (bee glue) activity has also been investigated. Its antibacterial properties are mainly attributed to flavonones pinocembrin, flavonols galangin and to the caffeic acid phenethyl ester. This study is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial effects of propolis from Pakistan on 35 clinical isolates of pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens.

Methods: This study was conducted in the Microbiology department, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. Pathogens included were Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (n=9), Porphyromonas gingivalis (n=13), Prevotella intermedia (n=9), Prevotella melaninogenica (n=4). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to three antibiotics was obtained by E-test method. All strains were sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and metronidazole, but 100% of P asaccharolytica and P melaninogenica strains displayed intermediate resistance to tetracycline while 69.2% P gingivalis and 100% P intermedia strains exhibited complete resistance to tetracycline. Screening for antibacterial activity of propolis extract was done by agar well diffusion assay, and all strains were found sensitive to ethanolic extract of propolis.

Results: MIC was obtained by agar incorporation technique with values ranging from 0.064 to 0.512 mg/ml. It was also noticed that percentage yield of ethanolic extract of propolis prepared from ultrasonic extraction method was higher compared to extract obtained with maceration.

Conclusion: These results indicate that propolis from this region has potent antimicrobial activity against pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens. Taking into consideration the increasing resistance in anaerobic bacteria, this effective antimicrobial activity of propolis gives hope in the treatment of oral cavity diseases.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Propolis, A Hope for the Future in Treating Resistant Periodontal Pathogens


Author Information

Ambreen Shabbir Corresponding Author

Pathology, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dhahran, KSA

Maryam Rashid

Pharmacology, Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan

Hamid N. Tipu

Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. University of Health Sciences Lahore. issued approval UHS/education/126-08/605. This research has been approved by Ethical review committee of University of Health Sciences Lahore Pakistan in review and advanced board. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan for providing finances for this project. This research would not be possible without the able supervision and encouragement of my supervisor and mentor, Major General Professor Abdul Hannan, who is no longer with us. He taught us not only the intricacies of microbiology but improved our concept about life itself. I shall always be in his debt for being a phenomenal supervisor. Special thanks to Professor Nazia Yazdani for co-supervising this project, Dr. Waseem Ahmed Gillani of the National Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan for donating propolis, Professor Tahira Shafiq and Dr. Zahida of the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore for their help with the preparation of the propolis extract.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Propolis, A Hope for the Future in Treating Resistant Periodontal Pathogens


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Propolis, A Hope for the Future in Treating Resistant Periodontal Pathogens

  • Author Information
    Ambreen Shabbir Corresponding Author

    Pathology, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dhahran, KSA

    Maryam Rashid

    Pharmacology, Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan

    Hamid N. Tipu

    Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. University of Health Sciences Lahore. issued approval UHS/education/126-08/605. This research has been approved by Ethical review committee of University of Health Sciences Lahore Pakistan in review and advanced board. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements

    We are grateful to the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan for providing finances for this project. This research would not be possible without the able supervision and encouragement of my supervisor and mentor, Major General Professor Abdul Hannan, who is no longer with us. He taught us not only the intricacies of microbiology but improved our concept about life itself. I shall always be in his debt for being a phenomenal supervisor. Special thanks to Professor Nazia Yazdani for co-supervising this project, Dr. Waseem Ahmed Gillani of the National Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan for donating propolis, Professor Tahira Shafiq and Dr. Zahida of the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore for their help with the preparation of the propolis extract.


    Article Information

    Published: July 12, 2016

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.682

    Cite this article as:

    Shabbir A, Rashid M, Tipu H N (July 12, 2016) Propolis, A Hope for the Future in Treating Resistant Periodontal Pathogens. Cureus 8(7): e682. doi:10.7759/cureus.682

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: June 13, 2016
    Peer review began: June 21, 2016
    Peer review concluded: June 24, 2016
    Published: July 12, 2016

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2016
    Shabbir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Introduction: Periodontitis is one of the most common causes of tooth loss worldwide. Recently, special attention has been paid to natural medication for its treatment. For this purpose, propolis (bee glue) activity has also been investigated. Its antibacterial properties are mainly attributed to flavonones pinocembrin, flavonols galangin and to the caffeic acid phenethyl ester. This study is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial effects of propolis from Pakistan on 35 clinical isolates of pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens.

Methods: This study was conducted in the Microbiology department, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. Pathogens included were Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (n=9), Porphyromonas gingivalis (n=13), Prevotella intermedia (n=9), Prevotella melaninogenica (n=4). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to three antibiotics was obtained by E-test method. All strains were sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and metronidazole, but 100% of P asaccharolytica and P melaninogenica strains displayed intermediate resistance to tetracycline while 69.2% P gingivalis and 100% P intermedia strains exhibited complete resistance to tetracycline. Screening for antibacterial activity of propolis extract was done by agar well diffusion assay, and all strains were found sensitive to ethanolic extract of propolis.

Results: MIC was obtained by agar incorporation technique with values ranging from 0.064 to 0.512 mg/ml. It was also noticed that percentage yield of ethanolic extract of propolis prepared from ultrasonic extraction method was higher compared to extract obtained with maceration.

Conclusion: These results indicate that propolis from this region has potent antimicrobial activity against pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens. Taking into consideration the increasing resistance in anaerobic bacteria, this effective antimicrobial activity of propolis gives hope in the treatment of oral cavity diseases.



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Ambreen Shabbir

Pathology, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dhahran, KSA

For correspondence:
ambreen_anjum@hotmail.com

Maryam Rashid

Pharmacology, Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan

Hamid N. Tipu

Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan

Ambreen Shabbir

Pathology, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dhahran, KSA

For correspondence:
ambreen_anjum@hotmail.com

Maryam Rashid

Pharmacology, Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan

Hamid N. Tipu

Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan