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Original article
peer-reviewed

The Consequence of Complete Dentures on Quality of Life of Edentulous Patients in the South-Indian Population Based on Educational and Socioeconomic Grades



Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to establish the level of denture satisfaction with socio-demographic variables and educational status of the patients rehabilitated with complete denture.

Materials and method

A total number of 250 completely edentulous patients were selected who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients had no past medical history which affects the oral condition; they were first-time denture wearers with period of edentulousness altering between six months to one year and were in the age group of 40-50 years, and were willingly involved in the study. The subjects were grouped according to their socioeconomic status such as employment, education and income level. The correlations were statistically determined using regression analysis.

Results

Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA), version 16.0. The significance of percentage error of the two groups was tested by Student t test and p value denoted level of significance (p<.05). Based on the education level, 30.47% of the population were under primary level of education, 57.82% completed higher secondary education and 11.72% of the population were graduates. Based on employment status, 53.12% of the population was unemployed, 32.03% were employed while 14.84% of the population were pensioners. Based on income per month, the population was classified as 6.25%, 31.25%, 21.09%, 22.66%, 18.75% for no income, less than 3000, 5000, 8000 and more than 10000 respectively. Psychological comfort, social ability, and functional improvement was better with higher secondary education level, employed and lower income individuals.

Conclusion

Rehabilitation of an elderly individual not only includes clinician skills but also the personal perception by the patient. The study concludes that the though there was no statistically significant difference, the individual with secondary level of education and with employed low socioeconomic status had better denture satisfaction than the other category.

Introduction

Management of edentulous patients during rehabilitation with complete dentures is still lacking with respect to patients based on educational level and socioeconomic status [1]. The need for thought of oral health-related quality of life (QoL) has been increasingly accepted over the last decades, and many studies highlight the psychosocial impacts of oral conditions. This study is based on considerations in making of complete dentures of different socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, literacy level, socio-economic and educational status may affect satisfaction towards dentures. To assess this, a consistent questionnaire that included questions from domains such as mastication, appearance, speech, comfort, health, denture care and social status is used to establish level of denture satisfaction with socio-demographic variables and educational status of the patients.

The removable denture prosthesis (RDP) must be able to restore the chewing function, aesthetics and phonetics to compensate partial edentulism [2]. Considering the biomechanics involved allows the specialist to design a removable partial denture prosthesis by establishing and maintaining lift, stabilization and retention termed the Housset triad. With these imperatives taken into account, and depending on the number of teeth lost and the type of edentulous areas bounded by remaining teeth or without posterior tooth support, the constraints on the prosthesis will be different and functional rehabilitation altered. One such method is by measuring food bolus granulometry before swallowing, associated with analysis of the kinematic parameters developed to distinguish patients with normal mastication from those with badly impaired mastication [3]. Impaired chewing function leads to raise of food bolus particle size, measured by the median particle size of the food bolus at swallowing. It has been revealed that adults with impaired mastication could be distinguished from those with normal function if the median particle size of the bolus that they produced, when chewing raw carrot reached a cut-off value of 4 mm, called the masticatory normative indicator (MNI) [4]. The adjustment of chewing behaviour to food hardness can also characterize healthy mastication. Adaptation to increasing food hardness marks in an augmented number of chewing cycles and an increase in the chewing sequence duration, with no modification of the chewing frequency (number of cycles per second) in healthy subjects [5,6]. The mean chewing frequency is slowed down in subjects with chewing deficiencies while eating any type of resistant food. Earlier studies on the chewing ability of dentally impaired subjects showed that a decrease in the number of functionally paired teeth and oral rehabilitation with removable dentures were linked to a decreased masticatory values [7,8]. But, the physiological impact of RDP rehabilitation has been seldom studied. Also, the objective of this work was to estimate the impact of partial edentulous areas rehabilitation by removable partial denture prosthesis with a socioeconomic and educational point of view.

Beside the therapist's ability and the quality of dentures, individual factors connected with the patient are very important for the final satisfaction with dentures. Patients are sometimes not satisfied with the constructions which are best, according to the therapist's judgment. Satisfaction with dentures seems to have multiclausal character. According to the results of Frank's studies, the most frequent areas of dissatisfaction were as follows: fit (33.6%), mastication (29.5%), natural tooth problems (26.3%), overall perception (26,2%), oral cleanliness (20.4%), speech (17.9%), appearance (17.8%), denture cleanliness (15.3%) and odour (13.2%) [9,10]. In different studies concerning satisfaction or dissatisfaction with partial removable dentures, more concern was placed on upper partial dentures. Dentists consider dentures to be successful when they meet certain methodological standards, whereas patients assess them from the viewpoint of personal satisfaction. The capability to adapt to new dentures will usually reduce in proportion to the individual status. To assess this, a consistent questionnaire that included questions from domains such as mastication, appearance, speech, comfort, health, denture care and social status was used to determine level of denture satisfaction with socio-demographic variables of completely edentulous patients rehabilitated with prosthesis.

Materials & Methods

The study was conducted at the Department of Prosthodontics, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (SRIHER) with the approval of the ethics committee. A total number of 250 completely edentulous patients were selected who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients had no past medical history which affects the oral condition, first-time denture wearers, period of edentulousness altering between six months to one year and Class I edentulous state as classified by American College of Prosthodontics and in the age group of 40-50 years who were willingly involved in the study was selected. The subjects were grouped according to their socioeconomic status such as employment, education and income level. According to the employment level, they were divided into Employed, Self-Employed, Unemployed and Pensioners. According to education level, they were separated as Primary (till standard five), Secondary (till standard nine), and Tertiary education. Income level they are divided into low, middle, and high-income group. The removable prosthesis was fabricated in the Department of Prosthodontics and their quality were assessed based on the method given by Sato et al [11]. The patients were interviewed at 2-3 months post-treatment. A single person conducted all the questionnaire surveys to reduce the discrepancy. A standardized questionnaire, with 19 questions based on denture satisfaction level and masticatory capacity in the domains of Functional limitation, Psychological discomfort, Psychological disability, and Social disability was administered [12]. All the questions were calculated in scale of satisfied, moderately satisfied and hardly ever. The denture satisfaction questions were only asked at the post-treatment interview and relevant to the satisfaction of their new maxillary/mandibular complete dentures the patients received according to the Likert scale. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA), version 16.0. Significance of percentage error of two groups was tested by Student t test and p value denoted level of significance (p<.05).

Results

Distribution of sample

Based on the education level, 30.47% of the population were under primary level of education, 57.82% of the population have done higher secondary education and 11.72% of the population were graduates. Based on employment status, 53.12% of population was unemployed, 32.03% of the population were employed while 14.84% of the population were pensioners. Based on income per month population were classified as 6.25%, 31.25%, 21.09%, 22.66%, 18.75% for no income, less than 3000, 5000, 8000 and more than 10000 respectively.

Psychological discomfort

On postoperative evaluation based on education, the satisfactory level for psychological comfort was higher for higher secondary educated persons followed by primary education and graduate persons. The distribution of sample was Higher secondary - 41, primary - 22 and graduate - 8 for satisfaction level questionnaire (SAQ)4 and SAQ5, Higher secondary - 55, primary - 29 and graduate - 10 for SAQ9. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was Higher secondary - 42, primary - 20 and graduate - 2 for masticatory ability questionnaire (MCQ)9 and Higher secondary - 56, primary - 24 and graduate - 12 for MCQ12. Though there was no statistical significance, the psychological comfort was better with Higher secondary education level (Table 1). 

Questionnaire Education level Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ4 Primary 22 10 1 0.119659
Higher Secondary 41 15 17
Graduate 8 3 4
SAQ5 Primary 21 10 2 0.105918
Higher Secondary 44 12 18
Graduate 8 5 2
 SAQ9 Primary 29 2 2 0.066393
Higher Secondary 55 9 10
Graduate 10 0 5
MCQ9 Primary 20 13 0 0.818271
Higher Secondary 42 30 2
Graduate 8 7 0
MCQ 12 Primary 24 8 1 0.867339
Higher Secondary 56 16 2
Graduate 12 2 1

On postoperative evaluation based on employment status, the satisfactory level for psychological comfort was more for employed persons followed by unemployed and pensioner persons. The distribution of sample was Employed - 47, Unemployed - 16 and Pensioner - 10 for SAQ4 and Employed-50, Unemployed - 15 and Pensioner - 12 for SAQ5, Employed - 68, Unemployed - 18 and Pensioner - 13 for SAQ9. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was Employed - 49, Unemployed - 15 and Pensioner - 9 for MCQ9 and Employed-61, Unemployed - 19 and Pensioner - 16 for MCQ12. Though there was no statistical significance, the psychological comfort was better with employed persons (Table 2). 

Questionnaire Employment Status Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ4 Unemployed 16 4 5 0.818145
Employed 47 21 14
Pensioner 10 6 3
SAQ5 Unemployed 15 6 4 0.518909
Employed 50 16 17
Pensioner 12 6 1
SAQ9 Unemployed 18 2 5 0.538068
Employed 68 7 8
Pensioner 13 2 4
MCQ9 Unemployed 15 10 0 0.696123
Employed 49 32 2
Pensioner 9 10 0
MCQ12 Unemployed 19 6 0 0.605909
Employed 61 18 4
Pensioner 16 3 0

On postoperative evaluation based on income, the satisfactory stage for psychological comfort were higher for low income individuals followed by upper middle class, lower middle class and higher class individuals. The distribution of sample was lower class -25, upper middle class -17, lower middle class-16 and higher class - 13 for SAQ4 and lower class -25, upper middle class -17, lower middle class-19 and higher class - 12 for SAQ5, lower class -34, upper middle class -25, lower middle class-18 and higher class - 17 for SAQ9. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was lower class -23, upper middle class -19, lower middle class-14 and higher class - 14 for MCQ9 and lower class -29, upper middle class -20, lower middle class-21 and higher class - 21 for MCQ12. Although there was no statistical significance, the psychological comfort was more with lower income individual, while it was very less with no income particpants (Table 3).

Questionnaire Income per month Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ4 Nil 0 0 1 0.306507
3000 25 11 4
5000 16 7 4
8000 17 7 4
10000&above 13 4 7
SAQ5 Nil 0 0 1 0.342548
3000 25 9 6
5000 17 5 5
8000 19 8 2
10000&above 12 6 6
SAQ9 Nil 1 0 0 0.150084
3000 34 2 4
5000 18 6 3
8000 25 2 2
10000&above 17 1 6
MCQ9 Nil 0 1 1 0.649235
3000 23 17 0
5000 14 13 2
8000 19 10 1
10000&above 14 10 1
MCQ12 Nil 1 0 0 0.847432
3000 29 10 1
5000 21 6 0
8000 20 8 1
10000&above 21 3 0

Social disability

On postoperative evaluation based on education, the satisfactory stage for social ability were higher for Higher secondary educated individuals followed by primary education and graduate individuals. The distribution of sample was Higher secondary-49, primary - 25 and graduate - 9 for SAQ3, Higher secondary-51, primary - 23 and graduate - 8 for SAQ7. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was Higher secondary-49, primary - 24 and graduate - 12 for MCQ10, Higher secondary-57, primary - 23 and graduate - 13 for MCQ11 and Higher secondary-54, primary - 25 and graduate - 9 for MCQ13. Though there was no statistical significance, the social ability was better with Higher secondary education level (Table 4).

Questionnaire Education level Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ3 Primary 25 6 2 0.564003
Higher Secondary 49 12 13
Graduate 9 3 3
SAQ7 Primary 23 7 3 0.295081
Higher Secondary 51 12 11
Graduate 8 2 5
MCQ10 Primary 24 8 1 0.725246
Higher Secondary 49 24 1
Graduate 12 3 0
MCQ11 Primary 23 9 1 0.532581
Higher Secondary 57 15 2
Graduate 13 1 1
MCQ13 Primary 25 6 1 0.357926
Higher Secondary 54 18 2
Graduate 9 4 2

On postoperative assessment based on employment status, the satisfactory level for social ability were higher for employed individuals followed by unemployed and pensioner individuals. The distribution of sample was Employed-57, Unemployed - 16 and Pensioner - 13 for SAQ3 and Employed-57, Unemployed - 17 and Pensioner - 12 for SAQ7. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was Employed-58, Unemployed - 16 and Pensioner -15 for MCQ10, Employed-61, Unemployed - 19 and Pensioner - 17 for MCQ11 and Employed-61, Unemployed - 17 and Pensioner - 15 for MCQ13. Though there was no statistical significance, the social ability was better with employed individuals (Table 5).

Questionnaire Employment Status Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ3 Unemployed 16 5 4 0.94543
Employed 57 13 13
Pensioner 13 4 2
SAQ7 Unemployed 17 3 5 0.869279
Employed 57 15 11
Pensioner 12 4 3
MCQ10 Unemployed 16 9 0 0.682443
Employed 58 23 2
Pensioner 15 4 0
MCQ11 Unemployed 19 6 0 0.438342
Employed 61 18 4
Pensioner 17 2 0
MCQ13 Unemployed 17 8 0 0.567791
Employed 61 17 4
Pensioner 15 3 1

On postoperative evaluation based on income, the satisfactory level for social ability were higher for low income individuals followed by upper middle class, lower middle class and higher class individuals. The distribution of sample was lower class -27, upper middle class -24, lower middle class-19 and higher class - 13 for SAQ3 and lower class -26, upper middle class -24, lower middle class-19 and higher class - 13 for SAQ7. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was lower class -28, upper middle class -20, lower middle class-19 and higher class - 18 for MCQ10, lower class -28, upper middle class -23, lower middle class-20 and higher class - 22 for MCQ11 and lower class -32, upper middle class -24, lower middle class-20 and higher class - 14 for MCQ13. Though there was no statistical significance, the social ability was better with lower income individual, while it was very less with no income individual (Table 6).

Questionnaire Income Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ 3 Nil 0 1 0 0.062094
3000 27 6 7
5000 19 7 1
8000 24 1 4
10000&above 13 6 5
SAQ 7 Nil 0 1 0 0.112107
3000 26 9 5
5000 19 3 5
8000 24 1 4
10000&above 13 6 5
MCQ 10 Nil 0 1 0 0.535895
3000 28 10 2
5000 19 8 0
8000 20 9 0
10000&above 18 6 0
MCQ 11 Nil 0 1 0 0.316671
3000 28 11 1
5000 20 7 0
8000 23 5 1
10000&above 22 2 0
MCQ 13 Nil 0 1 0 0.220572
3000 32 7 1
5000 20 6 1
8000 24 4 1
10000&above 14 10 0

Functional limitation

On postoperative assessment based on education, the satisfactory level for functional improvement was higher for Higher secondary educated individuals followed by primary education and graduate individuals. The distribution of sample was Higher secondary-49, primary - 25 and graduate - 9 for SAQ1, Higher secondary-51, primary - 23 and graduate - 8 for SAQ2. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was Higher secondary-47, primary - 28 and graduate - 10 for MCQ1, Higher secondary-42, primary - 21 and graduate -8 for MCQ2, Higher secondary-46, primary - 26 and graduate - 7 for MCQ3, Higher secondary-40, primary - 27 and graduate - 6 for MCQ4, Higher secondary-52, primary - 25 and graduate - 10 for MCQ5, Higher secondary-57, primary - 23 and graduate - 13 for MCQ6 and Higher secondary-46, primary - 23 and graduate - 8 for MCQ7. Though there was no statistical significance, the functional improvement was better with Higher secondary education level (Table 7).

Questionnaire Education level Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ1 Primary 19 7 7 0.898575
Higher Secondary 40 18 16
Graduate 10 2 3
SAQ2 Primary 22 7 4 0.819816
Higher Secondary 42 17 15
Graduate 9 4 2
MCQ1 Primary 28 5 2 0.082518
Higher Secondary 47 27 2
Graduate 10 5 1
MCQ2 Primary 21 11 1 0.874791
Higher Secondary 42 30 2
Graduate 8 7 0
MCQ3 Primary 26 5 2 0.136418
Higher Secondary 46 26 2
Graduate 7 7 1
MCQ4 Primary 27 6 0 0.032246
Higher Secondary 40 31 3
Graduate 6 8 1
MCQ5 Primary 25 8 0 0.712573
Higher Secondary 52 20 2
Graduate 10 4 1
MCQ6 Primary 23 9 1 0.019939
Higher Secondary 55 17 2
Graduate 5 10 0
MCQ7 Primary 23 10 0 0.612193
Higher Secondary 46 26 2
Graduate 8 6 1

On postoperative assessment based on employment status, the satisfactory level for functional improvement was higher for employed individuals followed by unemployed and pensioner individuals. The distribution of sample was Employed-49, Unemployed - 10 and Pensioner - 13 for SAQ1 and Employed-49, Unemployed - 12 and Pensioner - 14 for SAQ2. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was Employed-56, Unemployed - 19 and Pensioner -13 for MCQ1, Employed-50, Unemployed - 12 and Pensioner - 11 for MCQ2, Employed-57, Unemployed - 14 and Pensioner -12 for MCQ3, Employed-50, Unemployed - 15 and Pensioner -12 for MCQ4, Employed-60, Unemployed - 18 and Pensioner -13 for MCQ5, Employed-62, Unemployed - 16 and Pensioner -9 for MCQ6 and Employed-54, Unemployed - 17 and Pensioner - 11 for MCQ7. Though there was no statistical significance, the functional improvement was improved with employed individuals (Table 8).

Questionnaire Employment Status Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ1 Unemployed 10 9 6 0.16965
Employed 49 14 20
Pensioner 13 4 2
SAQ2 Unemployed 12 10 3 0.228617
Employed 49 18 16
Pensioner 14 3 2
MCQ1 Unemployed 19 6 6 0.717146
Employed 56 27 2
Pensioner 13 6 2
MCQ2 Unemployed 12 12 1 0.772695
Employed 50 31 2
Pensioner 11 8 0
MCQ3 Unemployed 14 11 0 0.456581
Employed 57 22 4
Pensioner 12 6 1
MCQ4 Unemployed 15 10 0 0.852958
Employed 50 30 3
Pensioner 12 6 1
MCQ5 Unemployed 18 7 0 0.851833
Employed 60 21 2
Pensioner 13 5 1
MCQ6 Unemployed 16 9 0 0.062266
Employed 62 18 3
Pensioner 9 10 0
MCQ7 Unemployed 17 8 0 0.676367
Employed 54 26 3
Pensioner 11 8 0

On postoperative assessment based on income, the satisfactory level for functional improvement were higher for low income individuals followed by upper middle class, lower middle class and higher class individuals. The distribution of sample was lower income class -30, upper middle class -21, lower middle class-14 and higher class - 8 for SAQ1 and lower class -35, upper middle class -13, lower middle class-10 and higher class - 9 for SAQ2. Based on masticatory ability, the distribution of sample was lower class -38, upper middle class -25, lower middle class-13 and higher class - 11 for MCQ1, lower class -36, upper middle class -28, lower middle class-15 and higher class - 11 for MCQ2, lower class -35, upper middle class -30, lower middle class-23 and higher class - 7 for MCQ3, lower class -42, upper middle class -30, lower middle class-21 and higher class - 10 for MCQ4, lower class -41, upper middle class -20, lower middle class-15 and higher class - 9 for MCQ5, lower class -33, upper middle class -20, lower middle class-15 and higher class - 9 for MCQ6 and lower class -35, upper middle class -17, lower middle class-15 and higher class - 11 for MCQ7. Though there was no statistical significance, the functional improvement was better with lower income individual, while it was very less with no income individual (Table 9).

Questionnaire Income Satisfied Moderately Satisfied Not Satisfied Pearson Chi-Square P value
SAQ 1 Nil 1 0 1 0.715441
3000 30 15 12
5000 14 3 2
8000 21 10 2
10000&above 8 1 0
SAQ 2 Nil 2  1 0.753563
3000 35 27 18
5000 10 2 1
8000 13 1 0
10000&above  9
MCQ 1 Nil 2 0.738232
3000 38 18 10 
5000 13 10 2
8000 25 11  1
10000&above  11  1  1
MCQ 2 Nil  1 0.990977
3000 36 23 3
5000 15 10 3
8000 28 20 1
10000&above 11 1 0
MCQ 3 Nil  1 0.738682
3000 35 9 1
5000 23 13 5
8000 30 13 1
10000&above 7 1 0
MCQ 4 Nil 0.983131
3000 42 18 0
5000 21 10 4
8000 30 10 1
10000&above 10 1 0
MCQ 5 Nil  1 0.764083
3000 41 10 0
5000 15 18 3
8000 20 4 1
10000&above 9 1 0
MCQ 6 Nil  3 1 0.763359
3000 33 9 0
5000 15 13 3
8000 20 11 0
10000&above  9  2
MCQ 7 Nil  3 1 0.97878
3000 35 4 0
5000 15 13 3
8000 17 4 0
10000&above  11  1

Discussion

Psychological assessments of patients have been found to be without influence on patients' judgment of dentures, whereas, others have been reported to distinguish significantly between satisfied and dissatisfied denture wearers [13,14]. Several studies demonstrated that the patient’s judgment can be predicted by information related to patient perceptions, expectations, and prior experiences [15]. Denture quality is defined in relation to a number of areas difficult to assess and no generally accepted standards exist. Accordingly, the validity and reliability of recordings of the quality of complete dentures are often doubtful [16]. Edentulism is considered a handicap with impacts on quality of life and nutrition. Provision of new complete dentures improves oral health-related quality of life. Patient’s satisfaction with their dentures is likely to be affected by their ability to perform certain tasks with them [17]. The present study was done to evaluate whether education level and socioeconomic status have an effect on the satisfaction level of the patient. Studies in edentulous subjects strongly support the concept that patient-based measures are more sensitive than functional measures for detecting differences between treatments [18].

The present study revealed that patient satisfaction was better with employed individuals but with the low-income group compared to the high-income group. In addition, the secondary level of educated individual had better satisfaction. This is contradictory to Poljak-Guberina et al. who found that age, education, marital status, income state, size of the residence and regional affiliation did not have a significant influence on satisfaction of patients with the prosthesis [19]. Also, not wearing prostheses was not linked to neuroticism. On the contrary, some researchers found no relationship between denture satisfaction and personality [20]. However, they used incomprehensive personality tests and paid little attention to reliability, validity, and suitability of the used tests. Moreover, Lowental and Tau found no relation between denture satisfaction and personality found no relationship between denture satisfaction and personality when denture satisfaction was assessed using denture satisfaction questionnaire [21].

Conclusions

Rehabilitation of an elderly individual not only includes clinician skills but also the personal perception by the patient. The study concludes that though there was no statistically significant difference, the individual with a secondary level of education and with employed low socioeconomic status had a better denture satisfaction than the other categories.


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Original article
peer-reviewed

The Consequence of Complete Dentures on Quality of Life of Edentulous Patients in the South-Indian Population Based on Educational and Socioeconomic Grades


Author Information

Madhan Seenivasan

Prosthodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, IND

Fathima Banu Corresponding Author

Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, IND

Athiban Inbarajan

Prosthodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, IND

Parthasarathy Natarajan

Prosthodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, IND

Shanmuganathan Natarajan

Prosthodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, IND

Anand Kumar V

Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, IND

Karthigeyan J

Prosthodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, IND


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Institutional Ethics Committee issued approval IEC-NI/11/OCT/25/26. The ethical approval has been obtained. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Original article
peer-reviewed

The Consequence of Complete Dentures on Quality of Life of Edentulous Patients in the South-Indian Population Based on Educational and Socioeconomic Grades


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