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Original article
peer-reviewed

Breastfeeding and Weaning: Practices in Urban Slums of Southern Punjab, Pakistan



Abstract

Objective

Proper breastfeeding and weaning practices are effective ways of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to find out breastfeeding and weaning practices among infants of six months to one year in urban slums of Bahawalpur city. By evaluating the knowledge and attitude of lactating mothers regarding their child feeding habits, modifications and specific interventions can be implemented to improve the breastfeeding and weaning practices of the area.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Shahdrah slums of Bahawalpur City after getting approval from the institutional review board of Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur. The survey was conducted from April 10, 2017 to May 30, 2017. One hundred mothers of infants aging six months to one year of age were interviewed. Mothers filled a customized questionnaire, consisting of questions about logistic variables, breastfeeding, and weaning. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY, USA).

Results

The mean age of the women was 24+2 years. It was found that 74% (n=74) of the mothers had one to three children, 85% (n=85) of the mothers were breastfeeding their infants at the time of the study, 40% (n=40) of the mothers were illiterate, 16% (n=16) of the mothers had secondary education, and 87% (n=87) of the mothers were nonworking women. Out of 85 women who were breastfeeding, 95% (n=80) of the women were 18-23 years of age. We found that 57% (n=57) of the infants were six to nine months old and the remaining 43% (n=43) were up to 12 months of age. Regarding the initiation of breastfeeding, 60% of the females started soon after delivery, and 32% started within two to seven days. We found that 70% (9/13) of the working women and 87.4% (76/87) of the non-working women were breastfeeding. The study found that 92.3% (12/13) of the working women and 88.5% (77/87) of the non-working women were weaning.

Conclusion

A majority of the mothers were breastfeeding and weaning their babies. The factors documented were young age, low parity, no working status, and nuclear families. The commonly used feeding materials were cereals, banana, rice, and bread. No side effects of weaning were observed. Weaning was associated by late age, parity, non-working status, educational status of father, and nuclear families.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Breastfeeding and Weaning: Practices in Urban Slums of Southern Punjab, Pakistan


Author Information

Khalil Ahmed

Department of Medicine, Hull Royal Infirmary

Muhammad Talha Corresponding Author

Medicine, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Quaid-E-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur

Zainab Khalid

Department of Medicine, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Mehvish Khurshid

Department of Medicine, Bahawal

Rizwan Ishtiaq

Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur issued approval 336. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Breastfeeding and Weaning: Practices in Urban Slums of Southern Punjab, Pakistan


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Breastfeeding and Weaning: Practices in Urban Slums of Southern Punjab, Pakistan

  • Author Information
    Khalil Ahmed

    Department of Medicine, Hull Royal Infirmary

    Muhammad Talha Corresponding Author

    Medicine, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Quaid-E-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur

    Zainab Khalid

    Department of Medicine, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Mehvish Khurshid

    Department of Medicine, Bahawal

    Rizwan Ishtiaq

    Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur issued approval 336. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: February 13, 2018

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.2189

    Cite this article as:

    Ahmed K, Talha M, Khalid Z, et al. (February 13, 2018) Breastfeeding and Weaning: Practices in Urban Slums of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Cureus 10(2): e2189. doi:10.7759/cureus.2189

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: January 02, 2018
    Peer review began: February 07, 2018
    Peer review concluded: February 11, 2018
    Published: February 13, 2018

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2018
    Ahmed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Objective

Proper breastfeeding and weaning practices are effective ways of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to find out breastfeeding and weaning practices among infants of six months to one year in urban slums of Bahawalpur city. By evaluating the knowledge and attitude of lactating mothers regarding their child feeding habits, modifications and specific interventions can be implemented to improve the breastfeeding and weaning practices of the area.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Shahdrah slums of Bahawalpur City after getting approval from the institutional review board of Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur. The survey was conducted from April 10, 2017 to May 30, 2017. One hundred mothers of infants aging six months to one year of age were interviewed. Mothers filled a customized questionnaire, consisting of questions about logistic variables, breastfeeding, and weaning. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY, USA).

Results

The mean age of the women was 24+2 years. It was found that 74% (n=74) of the mothers had one to three children, 85% (n=85) of the mothers were breastfeeding their infants at the time of the study, 40% (n=40) of the mothers were illiterate, 16% (n=16) of the mothers had secondary education, and 87% (n=87) of the mothers were nonworking women. Out of 85 women who were breastfeeding, 95% (n=80) of the women were 18-23 years of age. We found that 57% (n=57) of the infants were six to nine months old and the remaining 43% (n=43) were up to 12 months of age. Regarding the initiation of breastfeeding, 60% of the females started soon after delivery, and 32% started within two to seven days. We found that 70% (9/13) of the working women and 87.4% (76/87) of the non-working women were breastfeeding. The study found that 92.3% (12/13) of the working women and 88.5% (77/87) of the non-working women were weaning.

Conclusion

A majority of the mothers were breastfeeding and weaning their babies. The factors documented were young age, low parity, no working status, and nuclear families. The commonly used feeding materials were cereals, banana, rice, and bread. No side effects of weaning were observed. Weaning was associated by late age, parity, non-working status, educational status of father, and nuclear families.



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