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Original article
peer-reviewed

Ultrasound for Volume Assessment in Patients with Shock: Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention for Fourth-year Medical Students



Abstract

Objective

Shock is a common emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality, and judicious fluid resuscitation can significantly affect outcomes. The use of a bedside echocardiogram and evaluation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) via ultrasound (US) for collapsibility can predict volume status. Additionally, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA) 10 states that residents need to be able to address a patient with a critical illness, including hypotension, on Day 1 of residency. Existing literature revealed no published curriculum to teach medical students these skills. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to teach fourth-year medical students how to utilize IVC US measurement and echocardiography to assist in volume assessment of patients presenting with shock.

Methods

Students participated in an hour session on the first day of the emergency medicine (EM) clerkship. Didactic effectiveness was evaluated by comparing results on a pre-test and post-test. The test was administered to residents and attendings during the first week of the academic year to gain evidence for content validity. Students also responded to a survey to evaluate learner satisfaction.

Results

The average score on the validation test was 68.4% (standard deviation (SD): 21.6%, number (n) = 38) for residents and attendings, and 47.4% (SD: 19.4, n = 13) for interns. Students scored an average of 45.6% (SD: 23.6, n = 83) on the pre-test and 66.4% (SD: 22.1 n = 72) on the post-test, p < 0.01 (degrees of freedom (df) = 153, t = 5.7), Cohen's d = 0.92. The satisfaction survey showed 97.6% of students felt the session was worthwhile, 96.4% would recommend it to other students, and 83.1% felt it taught new information.

Conclusion

These results show that the educational intervention provides a significant increase in knowledge regarding volume assessment and the use of echocardiogram and IVC US. Additionally, students rated the course highly and felt that it provided information not otherwise taught in medical school. This curriculum addresses the AAMC EPA 10, as it increases students’ readiness to address hypotension and could add significant value to the medical school curriculum.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Ultrasound for Volume Assessment in Patients with Shock: Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention for Fourth-year Medical Students


Author Information

Paul Kukulski Corresponding Author

Emergency Medicine, The University of Chicago Medicine

Michael Ward

Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin

Keme Carter

Emergency Medicine, University of Chicago


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. University of Chicago issued approval exempt. Exempt. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Ultrasound for Volume Assessment in Patients with Shock: Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention for Fourth-year Medical Students


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Ultrasound for Volume Assessment in Patients with Shock: Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention for Fourth-year Medical Students

  • Author Information
    Paul Kukulski Corresponding Author

    Emergency Medicine, The University of Chicago Medicine

    Michael Ward

    Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin

    Keme Carter

    Emergency Medicine, University of Chicago


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. University of Chicago issued approval exempt. Exempt. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: January 30, 2018

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.2129

    Cite this article as:

    Kukulski P, Ward M, Carter K (January 30, 2018) Ultrasound for Volume Assessment in Patients with Shock: Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention for Fourth-year Medical Students. Cureus 10(1): e2129. doi:10.7759/cureus.2129

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: December 04, 2017
    Peer review began: December 06, 2017
    Peer review concluded: January 19, 2018
    Published: January 30, 2018

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2018
    Kukulski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Objective

Shock is a common emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality, and judicious fluid resuscitation can significantly affect outcomes. The use of a bedside echocardiogram and evaluation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) via ultrasound (US) for collapsibility can predict volume status. Additionally, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA) 10 states that residents need to be able to address a patient with a critical illness, including hypotension, on Day 1 of residency. Existing literature revealed no published curriculum to teach medical students these skills. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to teach fourth-year medical students how to utilize IVC US measurement and echocardiography to assist in volume assessment of patients presenting with shock.

Methods

Students participated in an hour session on the first day of the emergency medicine (EM) clerkship. Didactic effectiveness was evaluated by comparing results on a pre-test and post-test. The test was administered to residents and attendings during the first week of the academic year to gain evidence for content validity. Students also responded to a survey to evaluate learner satisfaction.

Results

The average score on the validation test was 68.4% (standard deviation (SD): 21.6%, number (n) = 38) for residents and attendings, and 47.4% (SD: 19.4, n = 13) for interns. Students scored an average of 45.6% (SD: 23.6, n = 83) on the pre-test and 66.4% (SD: 22.1 n = 72) on the post-test, p < 0.01 (degrees of freedom (df) = 153, t = 5.7), Cohen's d = 0.92. The satisfaction survey showed 97.6% of students felt the session was worthwhile, 96.4% would recommend it to other students, and 83.1% felt it taught new information.

Conclusion

These results show that the educational intervention provides a significant increase in knowledge regarding volume assessment and the use of echocardiogram and IVC US. Additionally, students rated the course highly and felt that it provided information not otherwise taught in medical school. This curriculum addresses the AAMC EPA 10, as it increases students’ readiness to address hypotension and could add significant value to the medical school curriculum.



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