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Review article
peer-reviewed

Winged Scapula: A Comprehensive Review of Surgical Treatment



Abstract

Winged scapula is caused by paralysis of the serratus anterior or trapezius muscles due to damage to the long thoracic or accessory nerves, resulting in loss of strength and range of motion of the shoulder. Because this nerve damage can happen in a variety of ways, initial diagnosis may be overlooked. This paper discusses the anatomical structures involved in several variations of winged scapula, the pathogenesis of winged scapula, and several historical and contemporary surgical procedures used to treat this condition. Additionally, this review builds upon the conclusions of several studies in order to suggest areas for continued research regarding the treatment of winged scapula.



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Review article
peer-reviewed

Winged Scapula: A Comprehensive Review of Surgical Treatment


Author Information

Marc Vetter Corresponding Author

Seattle Science Foundation

Ordessia Charran

Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University

Emre Yilmaz

Swedish Medical Center, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum

Bryan Edwards

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

Mitchel A. Muhleman

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George’s University, Grenada, WI

Rod J. Oskouian

Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

R. Shane Tubbs

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Marios Loukas

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


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Review article
peer-reviewed

Winged Scapula: A Comprehensive Review of Surgical Treatment

Marc Vetter">Marc Vetter , Ordessia Charran">Ordessia Charran, Emre Yilmaz">Emre Yilmaz, Bryan Edwards">Bryan Edwards, Mitchel A. Muhleman">Mitchel A. Muhleman, Rod J. Oskouian">Rod J. Oskouian, R. Shane Tubbs">R. Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas">Marios Loukas

  • Author Information
    Marc Vetter Corresponding Author

    Seattle Science Foundation

    Ordessia Charran

    Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University

    Emre Yilmaz

    Swedish Medical Center, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

    Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum

    Bryan Edwards

    Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

    Mitchel A. Muhleman

    Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George’s University, Grenada, WI

    Rod J. Oskouian

    Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

    R. Shane Tubbs

    Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

    Marios Loukas

    Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: December 07, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1923

    Cite this article as:

    Vetter M, Charran O, Yilmaz E, et al. (December 07, 2017) Winged Scapula: A Comprehensive Review of Surgical Treatment. Cureus 9(12): e1923. doi:10.7759/cureus.1923

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: November 29, 2017
    Peer review began: December 01, 2017
    Peer review concluded: December 04, 2017
    Published: December 07, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Vetter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Winged scapula is caused by paralysis of the serratus anterior or trapezius muscles due to damage to the long thoracic or accessory nerves, resulting in loss of strength and range of motion of the shoulder. Because this nerve damage can happen in a variety of ways, initial diagnosis may be overlooked. This paper discusses the anatomical structures involved in several variations of winged scapula, the pathogenesis of winged scapula, and several historical and contemporary surgical procedures used to treat this condition. Additionally, this review builds upon the conclusions of several studies in order to suggest areas for continued research regarding the treatment of winged scapula.



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Create a free account to continue reading this article.

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Marc Vetter

Seattle Science Foundation

For correspondence:
vettermj@plu.edu

Ordessia Charran

Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University

Emre Yilmaz, M.D.

Swedish Medical Center, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

Bryan Edwards, M.D.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

Mitchel A. Muhleman

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George’s University, Grenada, WI

Rod J. Oskouian, M.D.

Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Marios Loukas

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

Marc Vetter

Seattle Science Foundation

For correspondence:
vettermj@plu.edu

Ordessia Charran

Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University

Emre Yilmaz, M.D.

Swedish Medical Center, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

Bryan Edwards, M.D.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies

Mitchel A. Muhleman

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George’s University, Grenada, WI

Rod J. Oskouian, M.D.

Neurosurgery, Complex Spine, Swedish Neuroscience Institute

R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D., Professor

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation

Marios Loukas

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies