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Original article
peer-reviewed

Self-Shielding Analysis of the Zap-X System



Abstract

The Zap-X is a self-contained and first-of-its-kind self-shielded therapeutic radiation device dedicated to brain as well as head and neck stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). By utilizing an S-band linear accelerator (linac) with a 2.7 megavolt (MV) accelerating potential and incorporating radiation-shielded mechanical structures, the Zap-X does not typically require a radiation bunker, thereby saving SRS facilities considerable cost. At the same time, the self-shielded features of the Zap-X are designed for more consistency of radiation protection, reducing the risk to radiation workers and others potentially exposed from a poorly designed or constructed radiotherapy vault. The hypothesis of the present study is that a radiosurgical system can be self-shielded such that it produces radiation exposure levels deemed safe to the public while operating under a full clinical workload. This study summarizes the Zap-X system shielding and found that the overall system radiation leakage values are reduced by a factor of 50 compared to the occupational radiation limit stipulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement states. The goal of self-shielding is achieved under all but the most exceptional conditions for which additional room shielding or a larger restricted area in the vicinity of the Zap-X system would be required.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Self-Shielding Analysis of the Zap-X System


Author Information

Georg A. Weidlich Corresponding Author

Radiation Oncology, National Medical Physics and Dosimetry Comp., Inc

M. Bret Schneider

Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., Stanford University

John R. Adler

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve human participants or tissue. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors are either employees or contractors of Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., the manufacturer of the Zap-X. Financial relationships: Georg Weidlich, M. Bret Schneider, John R. Adler, Jr. declare(s) employment and stock/stock options from Zap Surgical Systems, Inc. All authors are either employees or contractors of Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., the manufacturer of the Zap-X. Intellectual property info: 9,308,395
9,757,594
PCT/US2017/038256
PCT/US 2017/054880
29/616,477
. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Self-Shielding Analysis of the Zap-X System


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Self-Shielding Analysis of the Zap-X System

Georg A. Weidlich">Georg A. Weidlich , M. Bret Schneider">M. Bret Schneider, John R. Adler">John R. Adler

  • Author Information
    Georg A. Weidlich Corresponding Author

    Radiation Oncology, National Medical Physics and Dosimetry Comp., Inc

    M. Bret Schneider

    Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., Stanford University

    John R. Adler

    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine

    Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve human participants or tissue. Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors are either employees or contractors of Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., the manufacturer of the Zap-X. Financial relationships: Georg Weidlich, M. Bret Schneider, John R. Adler, Jr. declare(s) employment and stock/stock options from Zap Surgical Systems, Inc. All authors are either employees or contractors of Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., the manufacturer of the Zap-X. Intellectual property info: 9,308,395
    9,757,594
    PCT/US2017/038256
    PCT/US 2017/054880
    29/616,477
    . Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: December 06, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1917

    Cite this article as:

    Weidlich G A., Schneider M, Adler J R. (December 06, 2017) Self-Shielding Analysis of the Zap-X System. Cureus 9(12): e1917. doi:10.7759/cureus.1917

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: November 21, 2017
    Peer review began: November 22, 2017
    Peer review concluded: November 30, 2017
    Published: December 06, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Weidlich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

The Zap-X is a self-contained and first-of-its-kind self-shielded therapeutic radiation device dedicated to brain as well as head and neck stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). By utilizing an S-band linear accelerator (linac) with a 2.7 megavolt (MV) accelerating potential and incorporating radiation-shielded mechanical structures, the Zap-X does not typically require a radiation bunker, thereby saving SRS facilities considerable cost. At the same time, the self-shielded features of the Zap-X are designed for more consistency of radiation protection, reducing the risk to radiation workers and others potentially exposed from a poorly designed or constructed radiotherapy vault. The hypothesis of the present study is that a radiosurgical system can be self-shielded such that it produces radiation exposure levels deemed safe to the public while operating under a full clinical workload. This study summarizes the Zap-X system shielding and found that the overall system radiation leakage values are reduced by a factor of 50 compared to the occupational radiation limit stipulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement states. The goal of self-shielding is achieved under all but the most exceptional conditions for which additional room shielding or a larger restricted area in the vicinity of the Zap-X system would be required.



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Georg A. Weidlich, Ph.D., M.Sc.

Radiation Oncology, National Medical Physics and Dosimetry Comp., Inc

For correspondence:
weidlich@hotmail.com

M. Bret Schneider, M.D.

Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., Stanford University

John R. Adler, M.D.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine

Georg A. Weidlich, Ph.D., M.Sc.

Radiation Oncology, National Medical Physics and Dosimetry Comp., Inc

For correspondence:
weidlich@hotmail.com

M. Bret Schneider, M.D.

Zap Surgical Systems, Inc., Stanford University

John R. Adler, M.D.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine