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Case report
peer-reviewed

Enigma of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Where Do We Stand?



Abstract

Tuberculosis remains a worldwide public health concern. Atypical extrapulmonary presentations may delay its diagnosis and treatment. The present study illustrates the importance of ruling out extrapulmonary tuberculosis in patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal diseases. Furthermore, we discuss the variety of clinical presentations, diagnostic challenges, current therapeutic protocols, and prognostic factors associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and effective treatment may decrease morbidity and mortality in such patients.



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Case report
peer-reviewed

Enigma of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Where Do We Stand?


Author Information

Faisal Inayat Corresponding Author

Department of Medicine, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

Munnam S. Jafar

Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

Nouman Safdar Ali

Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

Qulsoom Hussain

Department of Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abu Hurairah

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


Case report
peer-reviewed

Enigma of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Where Do We Stand?


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Case report
peer-reviewed

Enigma of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Where Do We Stand?

Faisal Inayat">Faisal Inayat , Munnam S. Jafar">Munnam S. Jafar, Nouman Safdar Ali">Nouman Safdar Ali, Qulsoom Hussain">Qulsoom Hussain, Abu Hurairah">Abu Hurairah

  • Author Information
    Faisal Inayat Corresponding Author

    Department of Medicine, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

    Munnam S. Jafar

    Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

    Nouman Safdar Ali

    Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

    Qulsoom Hussain

    Department of Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Abu Hurairah

    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York

    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: August 09, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1554

    Cite this article as:

    Inayat F, Jafar M S, Ali N, et al. (August 09, 2017) Enigma of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Where Do We Stand?. Cureus 9(8): e1554. doi:10.7759/cureus.1554

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: July 29, 2017
    Peer review began: August 02, 2017
    Peer review concluded: August 05, 2017
    Published: August 09, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Inayat et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Tuberculosis remains a worldwide public health concern. Atypical extrapulmonary presentations may delay its diagnosis and treatment. The present study illustrates the importance of ruling out extrapulmonary tuberculosis in patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal diseases. Furthermore, we discuss the variety of clinical presentations, diagnostic challenges, current therapeutic protocols, and prognostic factors associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and effective treatment may decrease morbidity and mortality in such patients.



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Create a free account to continue reading this article.

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Faisal Inayat

Department of Medicine, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

For correspondence:
faisalinayat@hotmail.com

Munnam S. Jafar

Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

Nouman Safdar Ali

Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

Qulsoom Hussain

Department of Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abu Hurairah

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York

Faisal Inayat

Department of Medicine, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

For correspondence:
faisalinayat@hotmail.com

Munnam S. Jafar

Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

Nouman Safdar Ali

Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan

Qulsoom Hussain

Department of Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abu Hurairah

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York