CD24 Expression is an Independent Prognostic Marker in Cholangiocarcinoma
CD24 has been described as an adverse prognostic marker in several malignancies. This study evaluates CD24 expression in cholangiocarcinoma and correlates the findings with clinicopathologic data and patient survival. Between 1996 and 2002, 22 consecutive patients with cholangiocarcinoma were treated at our institution. Demographic data, SEER stage, pathologic data, treatment, expression of CD24, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphorylated MAPK, and survival were analyzed. The majority of the tumors demonstrated CD24 (81.8%) and p-MAPK (87%) expression. A negative association was noted between the expression of CD24 and p-MAPK. Median survival for patients with low expression of CD24 was 36 months and high expression was 8 months. Median survival for patients who received chemotherapy with low CD24 expression was 163 months, and for seven patients with high CD24 expression, it was 17 months (p = 0.04). With the addition of radiation therapy, median survival for patients with low expression of CD24 was 52 months and high expression was 17 months (p = 0.08). On multivariate analysis, the use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0014, hazard ratio 0.069) and the CD24 overexpression (p = 0.02, hazard ratio 7.528) were predictive of survival. CD24 is commonly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma, and overexpression is predictive of poor survival and possibly of lack of response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These findings may improve selection of patients for the appropriate treatment modality and the development of CD24-targeted therapy.