An essential role for SKAP-55 in LFA-1 clustering on T cells that cannot be substituted by SKAP-55R
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 clustering, which is needed for high avidity binding to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and -2, regulates T cell motility and T cell–antigen-presenting cell (APC) conjugation. In this study, down-regulation of SKAP-55 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) identified an essential role for this adaptor molecule in the T cell receptor (TCR)–mediated ”inside-out signaling” that is needed for LFA-1 clustering and T cell–APC conjugation. In contrast, down-regulation of SKAP-55 had no effect on TCR–CD3 clustering. Furthermore, the expression of the related protein SKAP-55R failed to compensate for the loss of SKAP-55 in LFA-1 clustering, indicating that SKAP-55 has a unique function that cannot be replaced by this closely related protein. Our findings therefore indicate that SKAP-55, unlike SKAP-55R, is specifically tailored as an essential component of the inside-out signaling events that couple the TCR to LFA-1 clustering and T cell–APC conjugation.