Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of granular magnesium substituted β-tricalcium phosphate
Objective:The aim of this study was to produce dense granules of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and magnesium (Mg) substituted β-TCP, also known as β-TCMP (Mg/Ca=0.15 mol), in order to evaluate the impact of Mg incorporation on the physicochemical parameters and in vitro biocompatibility of this novel material.Material and Methods:The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Biocompatibility was assayed according to ISO 10993-12:2007 and 7405:2008, by two different tests of cell survival and integrity (XTT and CVDE).Results:The XRD profile presented the main peaks of β-TCP (JCPDS 090169) and β-TCMP (JCPDS 130404). The characteristic absorption bands of TCP were also identified by FTIR. The ICP results of β-TCMP granules extract showed a precipitation of calcium and release of Mg into the culture medium. Regarding the cytotoxicity assays, β-TCMP dense granules did not significantly affect the mitochondrial activity and relative cell density in relation to β-TCP dense granules, despite the release of Mg from granules into the cell culture medium.Conclusion:β-TCMP granules were successfully produced and were able to release Mg into media without cytotoxicity, indicating the suitability of this promising material for further biological studies on its adequacy for bone therapy.