"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."

Margaret Mead
Research Article

Association of depression with common carotid artery intima media thickness and augmentation index in a large Urban South Indian population- The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES - 138)


Aim:The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of depression with carotid intima media thickness and augmentation index in Asian Indians.Research Design and Methods:For this study, 1505 subjects were randomly selected from a population based study conducted in Chennai, South India. Right common carotid artery intima medial thickness [IMT] was determined using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Augmentation index [AI] was measured using the Sphygmocor apparatus. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire -12 (PHQ -12).Results:Of the 1505 subjects included in this study, depressive symptoms were present in 16.6% (n = 250) of the subjects. The mean IMT and AI values among subjects with depression were significantly higher than those without depression [0.83 ± 0.43 mm vs 0.73 ± 0.12 mm, P < 0.001] and IMT was higher in females with depression while AI was higher in males with depression. However, both IMT and AI were higher among those with depression in both genders. In multiple logistic regression model, depressive symptoms were associated with IMT even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, serum cholesterol and hypertension (Odds ratio [OR] =2.17, 95% Confidence intervals [CI]:1.01- 4.63, P = 0.047) but in the case of AI, the significance was lost in the adjusted model (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.991-1.02, P = 0.445).Conclusion:Among Asian Indians, presence of depressive symptoms was associated with carotid intima media thickness and Augmentation index, even after adjusting for potential confounders.