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Original article
peer-reviewed

Seven Cases of Zika Virus Infection in South Florida



Abstract

Introduction

Zika virus, an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, is a mosquito-borne virus known to cause microcephaly through vertical transmission. Infection presents with mild, self-limiting symptoms. Currently, a Zika virus outbreak has spread across most of South and Central America. Travel-related and sexually transmitted cases have been reported across the United States. However, the vector-borne transmission has been limited to Florida and Texas. We present seven cases of Zika virus infection that presented at a single institution in South Florida.

Methods

Patients were included that had real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus RNA in urine or serum or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against Zika virus in serum.

Results

All seven patients reported recent travel or employment in areas of active Zika virus transmission and at least two of the four most commonly reported symptoms (fever, arthralgia, rash, and conjunctivitis) with a rash present in all patients. All patients had positive RT-PCR for Zika virus RNA in urine. RT-PCR for Zika virus RNA in serum was negative in four of five patients that were tested, indicating that these patients likely presented one to two weeks after symptom onset.

Conclusion

The future of Zika virus outbreaks in other cities in the United States is still uncertain. However, it is clear that prevention and control policies are urgently needed. We have presented seven confirmed cases of Zika virus infection in South Florida. In addition to conducting research concerning both the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the virus, there is a need for public awareness of its presentation, methods of transmission, and subsequent clinical outcomes.



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Original article
peer-reviewed

Seven Cases of Zika Virus Infection in South Florida


Author Information

Waqaar Khawar Corresponding Author

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Romina Bromberg

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Molly Moor

GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Natalya Lyubynska

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Hilda Mahmoudi

GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center


Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Nova Southeastern University IRB issued approval 2016-422. Informed consent obtained. Animal subjects: This study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.


Original article
peer-reviewed

Seven Cases of Zika Virus Infection in South Florida


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Original article
peer-reviewed

Seven Cases of Zika Virus Infection in South Florida

  • Author Information
    Waqaar Khawar Corresponding Author

    Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

    Romina Bromberg

    Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

    Molly Moor

    GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

    Natalya Lyubynska

    Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

    Hilda Mahmoudi

    GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center


    Ethics Statement and Conflict of Interest Disclosures

    Human subjects: Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Nova Southeastern University IRB issued approval 2016-422. Informed consent obtained. Animal subjects: This study did not involve animal subjects or tissue. Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

    Acknowledgements


    Article Information

    Published: March 16, 2017

    DOI

    10.7759/cureus.1099

    Cite this article as:

    Khawar W, Bromberg R, Moor M, et al. (March 16, 2017) Seven Cases of Zika Virus Infection in South Florida. Cureus 9(3): e1099. doi:10.7759/cureus.1099

    Publication history

    Received by Cureus: February 09, 2017
    Peer review began: March 01, 2017
    Peer review concluded: March 13, 2017
    Published: March 16, 2017

    Copyright

    © Copyright 2017
    Khawar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    License

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Introduction

Zika virus, an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, is a mosquito-borne virus known to cause microcephaly through vertical transmission. Infection presents with mild, self-limiting symptoms. Currently, a Zika virus outbreak has spread across most of South and Central America. Travel-related and sexually transmitted cases have been reported across the United States. However, the vector-borne transmission has been limited to Florida and Texas. We present seven cases of Zika virus infection that presented at a single institution in South Florida.

Methods

Patients were included that had real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus RNA in urine or serum or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against Zika virus in serum.

Results

All seven patients reported recent travel or employment in areas of active Zika virus transmission and at least two of the four most commonly reported symptoms (fever, arthralgia, rash, and conjunctivitis) with a rash present in all patients. All patients had positive RT-PCR for Zika virus RNA in urine. RT-PCR for Zika virus RNA in serum was negative in four of five patients that were tested, indicating that these patients likely presented one to two weeks after symptom onset.

Conclusion

The future of Zika virus outbreaks in other cities in the United States is still uncertain. However, it is clear that prevention and control policies are urgently needed. We have presented seven confirmed cases of Zika virus infection in South Florida. In addition to conducting research concerning both the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the virus, there is a need for public awareness of its presentation, methods of transmission, and subsequent clinical outcomes.



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Create a free account to continue reading this article.

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Waqaar Khawar

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

For correspondence:
waqaark@gmail.com

Romina Bromberg

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Molly Moor

GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Natalya Lyubynska

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Hilda Mahmoudi

GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Waqaar Khawar

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

For correspondence:
waqaark@gmail.com

Romina Bromberg

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Molly Moor

GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Natalya Lyubynska

Department of Internal Medicine, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center

Hilda Mahmoudi

GME, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center